Solid foods and milk for your baby
You should continue to breastfeed or give your baby first infant formula until they're at least 1 year old.
Breastfeeding will continue to benefit you and your baby for as long as you carry on.
As your baby eats more solid foods, the amount of milk they want will decrease.
Once your baby is eating plenty of solids several times a day, they may even drop a milk feed altogether.
Beakers and cups for babies
Introduce your baby to drinking from a cup or beaker from around 6 months and offer sips of water with meals.
Using an open cup or a free-flow cup without a valve will help your baby learn to sip and is better for your baby’s teeth.
It might be messy at first but be patient, your baby will gradually learn how to drink from an open cup.
Once your baby is 1 year old, feeding from a bottle should be discouraged.
When using a bottle or trainer cup, don't put anything in it other than breast milk, formula milk or water and do not add anything else (including sugar, cereals, baby rice or chocolate powder) to the feed.
Comfort sucking from a bottle on sweetened drinks causes tooth decay in young children. Drinks flow very slowly through a teat, which means the sugary substance will be in contact with their teeth for longer.
Read more about how to look after your baby's teeth.
Choosing a baby beaker or cup
It's important to choose the right kind of beaker or cup.
A cup or a beaker with a free-flow lid (without a non-spill valve) is better than a bottle or beaker with a teat as it will help your baby to learn how to sip rather than suck.
As soon as your child is ready, encourage them to move from a lidded beaker to drinking from an open cup.
Drinks for babies and young children
Not all drinks are suitable for babies and young children. Here's what to give to your child and when.
This is the only food or drink babies need in the first 6 months of their life.
It should continue to be given alongside an increasingly varied diet once you introduce solid foods from around 6 months.
The World Health Organization recommends that all babies are breastfed for up to 2 years or longer.
Breastfeeding up to 12 months is associated with a lower risk of tooth decay
First infant formula is usually based on cows' milk and is the only suitable alternative to breast milk in the first 12 months of your baby's life.
Follow-on formula isn't suitable for babies under 6 months, and you don't need to introduce it after 6 months.
First infant formula, follow-on formula or growing-up milks aren't needed once your baby is 12 months old.
Cows' milk can be introduced as a main drink from 12 months.
Read more about the types of infant formula.
Non-cows' milk formula
Goats' milk formula is available and produced to the same nutritional standards as cows' milk formula.
Goats' milk formula isn't suitable for babies with cows' milk protein allergy. It is not less likely to cause allergies in babies than cows' milk formula as the proteins they contain are very similar.
You should only give your baby soya formula if a health professional advises you to.
This isn't suitable for babies under 6 months old. This type of formula isn't needed, and there's no evidence that babies settle better or sleep longer after having it.
Fully breastfed babies don't need any water until they've started eating solid foods. Formula-fed babies may need some extra water in hot weather.
For babies under 6 months, you should not use water straight from the mains tap in the kitchen as it is not sterile. You will need to boil the tap water first and then let it cool down. Water for babies over 6 months doesn't need to be boiled.
Bottled water isn't recommended for making up infant formula feeds as it may contain too much salt (sodium) or sulphate.
If you do have to use bottled water to make up a feed, check the label to make sure the sodium (also written as Na) level is less than 200 milligrams (mg) per litre. The sulphate (also written as SO or SO4) content shouldn't be higher than 250mg per litre.
Like tap water, bottled water isn't sterile, so it will need to be boiled before you use it to prepare a feed.
Always use boiled water at a temperature of at least 70C when you prepare a feed. Remember to let the feed cool before you give it to your baby.
Cows' milk can be used in cooking or mixed with food from around 6 months but shouldn't be given as a drink to babies until they are 12 months old. This is because cows' milk does not contain enough iron to meet babies' needs.
Whole milk should be given to children until they are 2 years old, as they need the extra energy and vitamins it contains.
Semi-skimmed milk can be introduced once your child is 2 years old, as long as they're a good eater and they have a varied diet.
Skimmed and 1% milk aren't suitable for children under 5 years old, as they don't contain enough calories.
Lower-fat milks can be used in cooking from 1 year old.
Young children shouldn't be given unpasteurised milk because of the higher risk of food poisoning.
Goats' and sheep's milk
These aren't suitable as drinks for babies under 1 year old as, like cows' milk, they don't contain enough iron and other nutrients babies this age need. As long as they're pasteurised, they can be used once your baby is 1 year old.
Soya drinks and other milk alternatives
You can give your child unsweetened calcium-fortified milk alternatives, such as soya, oat or almond drinks, from the age of 1 as part of a healthy balanced diet.
Babies and young children under 5 years old shouldn't be given rice drinks, because of the levels of arsenic in these products.
If your child has an allergy or intolerance to milk, talk to your health visitor or GP. They can advise you on suitable milk alternatives.
Children under 5 years old shouldn't have rice drinks as a substitute for breast milk, infant formula or cows' milk as they may contain too much arsenic.
Arsenic is found naturally in the environment and can find its way into our food and water.
Rice tends to take up more arsenic than other grains, but this does not mean that your baby cannot eat rice.
In the EU, there are maximum levels of inorganic arsenic allowed in rice and rice products, and even stricter levels are set for foods intended for young children.
Don't worry if your child has already had rice drinks. There's no immediate risk to them, but it's best to switch to a different kind of milk.
Fruit juice and smoothies
Fruit juices, such as orange juice, are a good source of vitamin C. However, they also contain natural sugars and acids, which can cause tooth decay.
Babies under 12 months don't need fruit juice or smoothies. If you choose to give these to your baby, dilute the juices and smoothies (one part juice to 10 parts water) and limit them to mealtimes.
Giving fruit juice and smoothies at mealtimes (rather than between) helps reduce the risk of tooth decay.
From 5 years old, you can give your child undiluted fruit juice or smoothies. Stick to no more than 1 glass (about 150 ml) a day, served with meals.
Squashes, flavoured milk, 'fruit' or 'juice' drinks and fizzy drinks
These are not suitable for young babies. These drinks contain sugar and can cause tooth decay, even when diluted.
For older babies and young children, these drinks can fill your child up so they're not hungry for healthier food. Instead, offer sips of water from a cup with meals.
Watch out for drinks that say "fruit" or "juice" drink on the pack. These probably won't count towards your child's 5 A DAY and can be high in sugar.
Fizzy drinks are acidic and can damage tooth enamel so they shouldn't be given to babies and young children.
Diet or reduced-sugar drinks aren't recommended for babies and young children. Even low-calorie drinks and no-added-sugar drinks can encourage children to develop a sweet tooth.
'Baby' and herbal drinks
These usually contain sugars and are not recommended.
Tea and coffee aren't suitable for babies or young children. If sugar is added, this can lead to tooth decay.
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Video: should my baby use a beaker or a cup?
In this video, a health visitor talks about whether your baby should use a beaker or a cup.
Media review due: 28 September 2023