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MMR vaccine overview

MMR is a safe and effective combined vaccine that protects against 3 separate illnesses – measles, mumps and rubella (German measles) – in a single injection. The full course of MMR vaccination requires 2 doses.

Measles, mumps and rubella are highly infectious conditions that can have serious, potentially fatal complications, including meningitis, swelling of the brain (encephalitis) and deafness.

They can also lead to complications in pregnancy that affect the unborn baby, and can lead to miscarriage. 

Since the MMR vaccine was introduced in 1988, it's rare for children in the UK to develop these serious conditions.

But outbreaks happen and there have been cases of measles in recent years, so it's important to make sure that you and your children are up-to-date with the MMR vaccination.

This NHS leaflet tells you about MMR vaccination.

MMR vaccine for babies and pre-schoolers

The MMR vaccine is given on the NHS as a single injection to babies as part of their routine vaccination schedule, usually within a month of their first birthday.

They'll then have a second injection of the vaccine before starting school, usually at 3 years and 4 months.

The MMR vaccine can sometimes be given to babies from 6 months of age if they may have been exposed to the measles virus, or during a measles outbreak.  

Babies under 6 months old are not routinely given the MMR vaccine.

This is because the antibodies to measles, mumps and rubella passed from mother to baby at the time of birth are retained and can work against the vaccine, meaning that the vaccine is not usually effective.

These maternal antibodies decline with age and are almost all gone by the time MMR is normally given – around the age of 1 year.

MMR vaccination is recommended for 6- to 9-month-old babies if they're at high risk of becoming infected in certain circumstances, such as during a measles outbreak.

But these children may not have enough protection from this early dose, so they'll still need the standard MMR doses at 12 to 13 months and 40 months of age.

The MMR vaccine is given as a single injection into the muscle of the thigh or upper arm.

Find out which children and adults should have the MMR vaccine

MMR for older children

Children up to the age of 18 who missed, or only partially completed, their earlier MMR vaccination can have a "catch-up" MMR vaccination on the NHS.  

If you know or suspect your child has not been fully immunised, arrange with your GP for them to have a catch-up MMR vaccination.

MMR for women planning pregnancy

If you're thinking about getting pregnant, it's a good idea to check that you're fully protected against measles, mumps and rubella.

Rubella infection in pregnancy can lead to serious birth defects and miscarriage.

If you're not sure whether you have had 2 doses of the MMR vaccine, ask your GP practice to check. 

If you have not had both doses or there's no record available, you can have the vaccinations at your GP practice.

You should avoid becoming pregnant for 1 month after having MMR vaccination.

Be aware that the MMR vaccine is not suitable for women who are already pregnant.

MMR for non-immune adults

The MMR vaccine can also be given on the NHS to adults who may need it.

This includes:

  • people born between 1970 and 1979, who may have only been vaccinated against measles
  • people born from 1980 to 1990, who may not be protected against mumps

Check with your GP if you're not sure whether you have had the MMR vaccine.

If in doubt, go ahead and have it. Even if you have had it before, it will not harm you to have a second, or even third, course of the vaccination.

Read more about when the MMR vaccine is needed.

Find out why some teenagers should have the MMR vaccination.

Get advice on how to protect yourself and your family if there's a measles outbreak.

Read the NHS leaflet Measles: not just a kids' problem (PDF, 868kb).

How the MMR vaccine works

The MMR vaccine contains weakened versions of live measles, mumps and rubella viruses.

The vaccine works by triggering the immune system to produce antibodies against measles, mumps and rubella.

If you or your child then comes into contact with one of the diseases, the immune system will recognise it and immediately produce the antibodies needed to fight it.

It's not possible for people who have recently had the MMR vaccine to infect other people.

The MMR vaccine given in the UK is known under the brand names Priorix, or M-M-RVAXPRO.

Read the patient information leaflet for Priorix (PDF, 124kb).

Read the patient information leaflet for M-M-RVAXPRO (PDF, 104kb).

Does the MMR vaccine cause autism?

There's been some controversy about whether the MMR vaccine might cause autism following a 1998 study by Dr Andrew Wakefield.

In his paper published in The Lancet, Dr Wakefield claimed there is a link between the MMR vaccine and autism or bowel disease.

But Andrew Wakefield's work has since been completely discredited and he has been struck off as a doctor in the UK.

Subsequent studies in the last 9 years have found no link between the MMR vaccine and autism or bowel disease.

Single measles, mumps and rubella vaccines

Single vaccines are not available on the NHS in the UK because there's a risk that fewer children would receive all the necessary injections, increasing the levels of measles, mumps and rubella in the country.

The delay in having 6 separate injections would also put more children at risk of developing the conditions, as well as increasing the amount of work and inconvenience for parents and those administering the vaccines.

Side effects of the MMR vaccine

As there are 3 separate vaccines within a single injection, different side effects can occur at different times.

The side effects of the MMR vaccine are usually mild. It's important to remember that they're milder than the potential complications of measles, mumps and rubella.

Side effects include:

  • developing a mild form of measles that lasts for 2 to 3 days (this is not infectious)
  • developing a mild form of mumps that lasts for a day or two (this is not infectious)

In rare cases, a small rash of bruise-like spots may appear a few weeks after the injection.

See your GP if you notice this kind of rash, or if you have any concerns about your child's symptoms after having the MMR jab.

Find out how the MMR jab is given

This NHS leaflet tells you about the common vaccination reactions in babies and young children up to the age of 5 years.

Read the answers to other common questions about the MMR vaccine.

Page last reviewed: 13 July 2018
Next review due: 13 July 2021