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Colds, coughs and ear infections in children

Children's colds

It's normal for a child to have 8 or more colds a year.

This is because there are hundreds of different cold viruses and young children have no immunity to any of them as they have never had them before.

They gradually build up immunity and get fewer colds.

Most colds get better in 5 to 7 days but can take up to 2 weeks in small children.

Here are some suggestions for how to ease the symptoms in your child: 

  • Make sure your child drinks plenty of fluids.
  • Saline nose drops can help loosen dried snot and relieve a stuffy nose. Ask a pharmacist, GP or health visitor about them.
  • If your child has a high temperature, pain or discomfort, children's paracetamol or ibuprofen can help. Children with asthma may not be able to take ibuprofen, so check with a pharmacist, GP or health visitor first. Always follow the instructions on the packet.
  • Encourage the whole family to wash their hands regularly to stop the cold spreading.

Cough and cold remedies for children

Children under 6 should not have over-the-counter cough and cold remedies, including decongestants, unless advised to by a GP or pharmacist.

Children's sore throats

Sore throats are often caused by viral illnesses such as colds or flu.

Your child's throat may be dry and sore for a day or 2 before a cold starts. You can give them paracetamol or ibuprofen to reduce the pain.

Most sore throats get better on their own after a few days.

If your child has a sore throat for more than 4 days, a high temperature and is generally unwell, see a GP.

If they're unable to swallow fluids or saliva or have any difficulty breathing, go to A&E or call 999 immediately as they'll need urgent treatment in hospital.

Find your nearest A&E department

Children's coughs

Children often cough when they have a cold because of mucus trickling down the back of the throat.

If your child is feeding, drinking, eating and breathing normally and there's no wheezing, a cough is not usually anything to worry about.

Although it's upsetting to hear your child cough, coughing helps clear away phlegm from the chest or mucus from the back of the throat.

If your child is over the age of 1, they can try drinking a warm drink of lemon and honey.

To make hot lemon with honey at home, you need to:

  • squeeze half a lemon into a mug of boiled water
  • add 1 to 2 teaspoons of honey
  • drink while still warm (do not give hot drinks to small children)

If your child has had a cough that's lasted longer than 3 weeks, see a GP.

If your child's temperature is very high, or they feel hot and shivery, they may have a chest infection. You should take them to a GP, or you can call 111.

If this is caused by bacteria rather than a virus, the GP will prescribe antibiotics to treat the infection. Antibiotics will not soothe or stop the cough straight away.

If a cough continues for a long time, especially if it's worse at night or is brought on by your child running about, it could be a sign of asthma.

Take them to a GP, who will be able to check if your child has asthma.

If your child is finding it hard to breathe, go to A&E or call 999 immediately as they'll need urgent treatment in hospital.

Find your nearest A&E department

Find out more about coughs


A child with croup has a distinctive barking cough and will make a harsh sound, known as stridor, when they breathe in. 

They may also have a runny nose, sore throat and high temperature.

Croup can usually be diagnosed by a GP and treated at home.

But if your child's symptoms are severe and they're finding it hard to breathe, go to A&E or call 999 immediately as they'll need urgent treatment in hospital.

Find your nearest A&E department

Read more about the symptoms of croup

Children's ear infections

Ear infections are common in babies and small children. They often follow a cold and sometimes cause a high temperature.

A baby or toddler may pull or rub at an ear. Other possible symptoms include a high temperature, irritability, crying, difficulty feeding, restlessness at night, and a cough.

If your child has earache, with or without a high temperature, you can give them paracetamol or ibuprofen at the recommended dose.

Try one medicine first and, if it does not work, you can try giving the other one.

You should not give children paracetamol and ibuprofen at the same time unless advised to by a healthcare professional.

Do not put any oil, eardrops or cotton buds into your child's ear, unless a GP advises you to do so.

Most ear infections are caused by viruses, which cannot be treated with antibiotics.

They'll just get better by themselves, usually within about 3 days.

After an ear infection, your child may have some hearing loss.

Their hearing should get better within a few weeks. But if the problem lasts for any longer than this, ask a GP for advice.

Find out more about ear infections

Glue ear in children

Repeated middle ear infections (otitis media) may lead to glue ear (otitis media with effusion), where sticky fluid builds up and can affect your child's hearing. 

This may lead to hearing loss, which is usually temporary.

If you smoke, your child is more likely to develop glue ear and will get better more slowly.

A GP can give you advice on treating glue ear and can help you stop smoking.

Find out more about how to stop smoking

See glue ear for further information

Video: How do I treat my child's cold? (9 to 30 months)

This video explains what to do if your child gets a cold.

Media last reviewed: 10 October 2020
Media review due: 10 October 2023

Page last reviewed: 19 November 2021
Next review due: 19 November 2024