Brucellosis is an infection you can catch from unpasteurised milk and cheese. It's extremely rare in the UK.
How you catch brucellosis
It's mainly caught by:
- drinking milk that has not been pasteurised (heat-treated to kill bacteria)
- eating dairy products, like cheese and ice cream, made from unpasteurised milk
You can also catch brucellosis from eating raw or undercooked meat. Or you can catch the infection from contact with bodily fluids of farm animals such as cows, goats, sheep and pigs. But this is rare.
It's very rare to catch brucellosis from other people.
Symptoms of brucellosis
Symptoms may appear suddenly over 1 to 2 days or gradually over several weeks.
Symptoms of brucellosis are like flu:
- a high temperature
- loss of appetite
- extreme tiredness
- back and joint pain
Non-urgent advice: See a GP if you have symptoms of brucellosis and:
- you've had unpasteurised milk or dairy products
- you've eaten raw or undercooked meat
- you work closely with farm animals
Tell your GP if you have recently travelled overseas.
How brucellosis is treated
Brucellosis is usually diagnosed using a blood test.
The infection is treated with a course of antibiotics for at least 6 weeks. It's important to finish your course even if you start to feel better.
You should make a full recovery, and the infection is unlikely to return.
How to avoid getting brucellosis
There's no human vaccine against brucellosis, but there are things you can do to reduce your chances of getting it.
avoid contact with livestock and wild animals while travelling in places where brucellosis is a problem
wear protective clothing if working with animals
put a plaster on any wounds before touching animals
do not drink unpasteurised milk
do not eat dairy products, like cheese and ice cream, made from unpasteurised milk
do not eat raw or undercooked meat
Report suspected brucellosis
Brucellosis is a notifiable animal disease. If you suspect you or someone you know has it, you must report it immediately. You can do this by calling the Defra Rural Services Helpline on 03000 200 301.
Page last reviewed: 15 October 2020
Next review due: 15 October 2023