Experts are still unsure exactly how much – if any – alcohol is completely safe for you to have while you're pregnant, so the safest approach is not to drink at all while you're expecting.
Is it safe to drink alcohol when pregnant?
The Chief Medical Officers for the UK recommend that if you're pregnant or planning to become pregnant, the safest approach is not to drink alcohol at all to keep risks to your baby to a minimum.
Drinking in pregnancy can lead to long-term harm to the baby, with the more you drink, the greater the risk.
How does alcohol affect my unborn baby?
When you drink, alcohol passes from your blood through the placenta and to your baby.
A baby's liver is one of the last organs to develop and does not mature until the later stages of pregnancy.
Your baby cannot process alcohol as well as you can, and too much exposure to alcohol can seriously affect their development.
Drinking alcohol, especially in the first 3 months of pregnancy, increases the risk of miscarriage, premature birth and your baby having a low birthweight.
Drinking after the first 3 months of your pregnancy could affect your baby after they're born.
The risks are greater the more you drink. The effects include learning difficulties and behavioural problems.
Drinking heavily throughout pregnancy can cause your baby to develop a serious condition called foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).
- poor growth
- distinct facial features
- learning and behavioural problems
Drinking less heavily, and even drinking heavily on single occasions, may be associated with lesser forms of FAS. The risk is likely to be greater the more you drink.
How to avoid alcohol in pregnancy
It may not be as difficult as you think to avoid alcohol completely during pregnancy, as many women go off the taste of alcohol early in pregnancy.
Most women do give up alcohol once they know they're pregnant or when they're planning to become pregnant.
Women who find out they're pregnant after already having drunk in early pregnancy should avoid further drinking.
However, they should not worry unnecessarily, as the risks of their baby being affected are likely to be low.
If you're concerned, talk to a midwife or doctor.
What is a unit of alcohol?
If you do decide to drink when you're pregnant, it's important to know how many units you are consuming.
One UK unit is 10 millilitres (ml) – or 8 grams – of pure alcohol. This is equal to:
- just under half a pint of cider (218ml) at 4.5% alcohol by volume (ABV: you can find this on the label)
- just under half a pint of beer (250ml) at 4% ABV
- a single measure of spirit (25ml), such as whisky, gin, rum or vodka, at 40% ABV
- just under half a standard glass of wine (76ml) at 13% ABV
You can find out how many units there are in different types and brands of drinks with the Drinkaware unit and calorie calculator.
If you have an Android smartphone, iPhone, iPad or iPod touch, you can download the free One You Drinks Tracker from Google Play or the iTunes App Store. It allows you to keep a drinks diary and get feedback on your drinking.
Read more about alcohol units.
Alcohol support services
If you have difficulty cutting down what you drink, talk to a midwife, doctor or pharmacist.
Confidential help and support is also available from local counselling services:
- Drinkline – the national alcohol helpline; if you're worried about your own or someone else's drinking, call this free helpline on 0300 123 1110 (weekdays 9am to 8pm, weekends 11am to 4pm)
- We Are With You – a UK-wide treatment agency that helps individuals, families and communities manage the effects of alcohol and drug misuse
- Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) – a free self-help group; its "12-step" programme involves getting sober with the help of regular support groups
Find your nearest alcohol support services.
Read more advice on cutting down your drinking.