If you have been referred to hospital for an operation or test and you need to stay overnight, it means you're being treated as an inpatient.
The hospital should contact you with more information before you come in. Details of what you need to do will vary depending on the hospital.
They might ask you to wear a face covering over your nose and mouth, test to check if you have COVID-19 or self-isolate before you go into hospital.
Check the hospital's website for more information.
When you arrive at the hospital, you'll be welcomed by a member of staff, who will explain the processes to you and what to expect.
You'll be given an identity bracelet to wear at all times while you're in the hospital.
While you're in hospital, you should be involved in all decisions about your treatment.
If you wish, staff will keep members of your family or friends informed about your progress.
Will I be offered same-sex hospital accommodation?
Being in mixed-sex hospital accommodation can be difficult for some patients for a variety of personal and cultural reasons.
All providers of NHS-funded care are expected to eliminate mixed-sex accommodation, except where it's in the overall best interests of the patient or reflects their personal choice.
While there are some circumstances where mixing can be justified, these are mainly confined to patients who need highly specialised care, such as that given in critical care units.
Find out about being detained under the Mental Health Act to learn more about this.
Since April 2011, hospitals have had to provide a monthly report of the number of times they breach the Department of Health's same-sex accommodation guidance.
Mixed-sex accommodation data is published on the NHS England website, and you can use this information to help you choose a hospital.
Hospitals can face fines of up to £250 for breaching the same-sex accommodation guidance.
While this central reporting concentrates on sleeping accommodation, mixing in bathrooms and WCs is still unacceptable.
Will the hospital address possible mental health needs?
If you're physically ill and have to go to hospital for treatment, the team looking after you should also consider your mental health needs.
Your hospital should have a liaison psychiatry service, also known as a psychological medicine service.
The service aims to bridge the gap between physical and mental healthcare.
In discussion with you, your healthcare team should refer you to the liaison psychiatry service where appropriate to ensure your mental health needs are met.
Consent to treatment
For some procedures, including operations, you'll be asked to sign a consent form.
It's up to you whether you give your consent for a treatment.
You should ask as much about the treatment as possible before giving your consent so you can give an informed decision.
You can change your mind after the consent form has been signed, at any time, including during the procedure.
You may wish to plan ahead for a time when you cannot give consent.
You can pre-arrange a legally binding advance decision to refuse treatment (living will), previously known as an advance directive.
Healthcare professionals must follow the advance decision, provided it's valid and applicable.
You can also make broader statements about how you wish to be treated, such as receiving terminal care at home rather than in hospital.
These are not legally binding, but will be taken into consideration by health professionals.
What if I'm not able to give consent?
If you clearly lack the capacity to make decisions when you're admitted to hospital, health professionals will make what's called a "best interests decision" about whether a specific treatment is in your best interests.
Doctors and nurses will weigh up the benefits and risks, including whether you're likely to regain the ability to give or withhold consent.
Consent under the Mental Health Act
If you're held under the Mental Health Act, you can be treated against your will.
This is because it's felt you do not have sufficient capacity to make an informed decision about your treatment at the time.
This is also the case if you refuse treatment but the team treating you believe you should have it.
The Care Quality Commission (CQC) provides detailed guidance about your rights in relation to consent to medication and electroconvulsive therapy if you're detained in hospital or placed on a community treatment order.
Consent for children and young people
Before a doctor, nurse or therapist can examine or treat your child, they must have consent or agreement.
As a parent, you'll make your decisions based on what you feel is in your child's best interests.
But it's advisable to involve children as much as possible in these decisions.
This will give them a sense of control, and they're more likely to respond positively to their treatment.
People aged 16 or over are entitled to consent to their own treatment. This can only be overruled in exceptional circumstances.
Children under the age of 16 can consent to their own treatment if they're believed to have enough intelligence, competence and understanding to fully appreciate what's involved in their treatment. This is known as being Gillick competent.
Advice for parents with children
Children can find going to hospital a daunting experience.
This is partly to do with their treatment, but also because the hospital is a new and strange environment, full of new sights, smells, noises and people.
If possible, talk to your child before leaving for hospital and explain what they should expect.
Stay with your child as much as you can
Children often adapt better to a hospital if their parents stay with them for as long as possible.
Reassure your child that you'll be staying by their side and let them know the hospital is a safe place to be.
But if you have to leave the hospital at any time, inform your child how long you'll be gone for and make sure you're back on time.
If you're able to stay with your child overnight, the hospital may arrange for an extra bed in your child's room or ward.
Stick to a routine
Keeping a routine can help your child feel more at home.
It may help if, for example, you stick to your child's usual bedtime routine, or bring in their favourite toy or comforter.
Take time for yourself
While it's important to reassure children about their stay in hospital, it's just as important to look after yourself.
You'll be better able to care for your child and give support if you're coping well yourself.
Remember, it's fine to take breaks. Go for a walk, or get a cup of tea or coffee.
Talk things through with your partner, friends or family. They'll be able to give support, and talking can be a great stress reliever.
Staying mobile in hospital can help you recover more quickly.
Being immobile can lead to additional health problems, such as infections and pressure sores. It can also increase your risk of blood clots.
To avoid venous thromboembolism (VTE), you'll be encouraged to move about the ward regularly. You'll be given as much assistance as you need to move about.
If you're at an increased risk of VTE, you'll be given compression stockings to improve your circulation.
Death in hospital
If someone you know dies while in hospital, the staff will advise you about what to do.
If you're their next of kin, you may need to give permission for a post-mortem to be carried out.
General tips on hospital etiquette
Things to remember while you're in hospital:
- Tell staff if you're going out of the ward or unit.
- Listen carefully to information about your treatment and medication.
- Ask staff to explain something to you again if you do not understand.
- Tell the doctor about any treatments you're already receiving or any allergies you have.
- Bring any medication you're currently using with you.
- Treat staff, fellow patients and visitors politely and with respect. Verbal abuse, harassment and physical violence are unacceptable and may lead to prosecution.
- Follow the rules for your ward.
Hospital safety and security
Accidents, particularly falls, occur frequently in hospitals, but many can be prevented.
If you see something that could cause an accident or witness an incident, alert a member of staff immediately.
To help avoid accidents in hospital:
- Ask for help if you want to get in or out of bed and feel dizzy or unwell.
- Ensure you know where the call bell is and you can reach it easily.
- Be aware of obstacles on the ward, wet floors and other people around you.
- If you have glasses, wear them. If you have left them at home, ask someone to bring them in for you.
- Wear close-fitting non-slip slippers.
- If you use a walking aid, such as a stick or frame, keep it near to you. Make sure it's labelled with your name and contact details.
- If your bed is too high or too low, ask the nursing staff to adjust it for you.
Each hospital has its own fire safety procedure. Make sure you're familiar with what to do in case of a fire.
Patient Advice and Liaison Service (PALS)
If you need help and advice about your treatment in hospital, contact the Patient Advice and Liaison Service (PALS).
Most hospitals have their own PALS contact you can approach.
To contact your local PALS:
- phone your local clinic, GP surgery, health centre or hospital and ask for details of PALS
- search for your local PALS