Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) affects people differently, but usually causes a particular pattern of thoughts and behaviours.
OCD has 3 main elements:
- obsessions – where an unwanted, intrusive and often distressing thought, image or urge repeatedly enters your mind
- emotions – the obsession causes a feeling of intense anxiety or distress
- compulsions – repetitive behaviours or mental acts that a person with OCD feels driven to perform as a result of the anxiety and distress caused by the obsession
The compulsive behaviour temporarily relieves the anxiety, but the obsession and anxiety soon return, causing the cycle to begin again.
Most people with OCD experience both obsessive thoughts and compulsions, but one may be less obvious than the other.
Almost everyone has unpleasant or unwanted thoughts at some point, such as thinking they may have forgotten to lock the door of the house, or even sudden unwelcome violent or offensive mental images.
But if you have a persistent, unpleasant thought that dominates your thinking to the extent it interrupts other thoughts, you may have an obsession.
Some common obsessions that affect people with OCD include:
- fear of deliberately harming yourself or others – for example, fear you may attack someone else, such as your children
- fear of harming yourself or others by mistake – for example, fear you may set the house on fire by leaving the cooker on
- fear of contamination by disease, infection or an unpleasant substance
- a need for symmetry or orderliness – for example, you may feel the need to ensure all the labels on the tins in your cupboard face the same way
You may have obsessive thoughts of a violent or sexual nature that you find repulsive or frightening. But they're just thoughts and having them does not mean you'll act on them.
These thoughts are classed as OCD if they cause you distress or have an impact on the quality of your life.
Compulsions start as a way of trying to reduce or prevent anxiety caused by the obsessive thought, although in reality, this behaviour is either excessive or not realistically connected.
For example, a person who fears contamination with germs may wash their hands repeatedly, or someone with a fear of harming their family may have the urge to repeat an action multiple times to "neutralise" the thought.
Most people with OCD realise that such compulsive behaviour is irrational and makes no logical sense, but they cannot stop acting on it and feel they need to do it "just in case".
Common types of compulsive behaviour in people with OCD include:
- cleaning and hand washing
- checking – such as checking doors are locked or that the gas is off
- ordering and arranging
- asking for reassurance
- repeating words in their head
- thinking "neutralising" thoughts to counter the obsessive thoughts
- avoiding places and situations that could trigger obsessive thoughts
Not all compulsive behaviours will be obvious to other people.
It's important to get help if you think you have OCD and it's having a significant impact on your life.
If you think a friend or family member may have OCD, try talking to them about your concerns and suggest they get help.
OCD is unlikely to get better on its own, but treatment and support is available to help you manage your symptoms and have a better quality of life.
There are 2 main ways to get help:
- refer yourself directly to an NHS talking therapies service – find an NHS talking therapies service in your area
- see a GP – they can either prescribe suitable medicine or refer you to a local talking therapies service if necessary
Contact a GP or care team immediately if you ever feel you cannot go on. You can also:
- call 116 123 to talk to the Samaritans, or email: firstname.lastname@example.org for a reply within 24 hours
- contact NHS 111
Read more about where to get urgent help for mental health.
Some people with OCD may also have or develop other serious mental health problems, including:
- depression – a condition that typically causes lasting feelings of sadness and hopelessness, or a loss of interest in the things you used to enjoy
- eating disorders – conditions characterised by an abnormal attitude towards food that cause you to change your eating habits and behaviour
- generalised anxiety disorder – a condition that causes you to feel anxious about a wide range of situations and issues, rather than one specific event
- a hoarding disorder – a condition that involves excessively acquiring items and not being able to throw them away, resulting in unmanageable amounts of clutter
People with OCD and severe depression may also have suicidal feelings.