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Signs and symptoms - Munchausen syndrome

Signs and symptoms of Munchausen syndrome may include pretending to be ill, or self-harming to aggravate or induce illness.

There are 4 main ways people with Munchausen syndrome fake or induce illnesses:

  • lying about symptoms – for example, choosing symptoms that are difficult to disprove, such as having a severe headache or pretending to have a seizure or to pass out
  • tampering with test results – for example, heating a thermometer to suggest a fever or adding blood to a urine sample
  • self-infliction – for example, cutting or burning themselves, poisoning themselves with drugs, or eating food contaminated with bacteria
  • aggravating conditions – for example, rubbing poo into wounds to cause an infection, or re-opening previously healed wounds

Clues to Munchausen syndrome

Some clues that a person may have Munchausen syndrome include:

  • making frequent visits to hospitals in different areas
  • claiming to have a history of complex and serious medical conditions with no or little supporting evidence – people often claim they've spent a long time out of the country
  • having symptoms that do not match test results
  • having symptoms that get worse for no apparent reason
  • having very good medical knowledge
  • receiving few or no hospital visitors – many people with Munchausen syndrome have a solitary lifestyle and have little contact with friends or family
  • being willing to undergo often painful or dangerous tests and procedures
  • reporting symptoms that are vague and inconsistent, or reporting a pattern of symptoms that are "textbook examples" of certain health conditions
  • telling unbelievable and often very elaborate stories about their past – such as claiming to be a decorated war hero or that their parents are fantastically rich and powerful

Munchausen by internet

Munchausen by internet is relatively new. It's where a person joins an internet support group for people with a serious health condition, such as cystic fibrosis or leukaemia, and then claims to have the illness themselves.

While these actions may only be confined to the internet, they can have a significant negative impact on support groups and online communities. For example, people with genuine health conditions have reported feeling angry and betrayed when they discover they've been lied to.

Signs that suggest someone's online posts may not be genuine include:

  • posts and messages that contain large chunks of information and appear to have been directly copied from health websites, such as NHS.UK
  • reports of having symptoms that appear to be much more severe than most people would experience
  • making claims of near-fatal bouts of illness followed by a miraculous recovery
  • making fantastic claims that they later contradict or are shown to be false – for example, they may claim to be attending a certain hospital that does not actually exist
  • claiming to have continual dramatic events in their life, such as loved ones dying or being the victim of a violent crime, particularly when other group members have become a focus of attention
  • pretending to be unconcerned when they talk about serious problems, probably to attract attention and sympathy
  • other "people" claiming to post on their behalf, such as a parent or partner, but they use exactly the same style of writing

Page last reviewed: 16 September 2022
Next review due: 16 September 2025