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Orthodontic treatments - Orthodontics

There are many different types of orthodontic treatment. The best treatment for you depends on the exact problem you have.

The first stage of any treatment is to assess the current position of your teeth and how they're likely to change over time.

This often involves taking X-rays, making plaster models, and taking photographs of your teeth.

You will then be given a treatment plan. This may suggest more than 1 way to treat the problem you have. Talk to your orthodontist about your options.

Orthodontic appliances

Orthodontic treatment uses appliances to correct the position of teeth.

The 4 main types are:

  • fixed braces – a brace you cannot remove which is made up of brackets that are glued to the front of each tooth and linked with wires
  • removable braces – usually plastic plates that cover the roof of the mouth and clip on to some teeth; these can only be used to achieve very limited tooth movements
  • functional appliances – usually a pair of removable plastic braces that are joined together or designed to interact together and fit on to both the upper and lower teeth
  • headgear – this can be used with other appliances and is usually worn at night

In more severe cases, treatment may involve fixed braces plus surgery to move the jaw. This treatment is done in hospital.

These treatments are outlined in more detail on this page.

You can also find more information about different orthodontic treatments on the British Orthodontic Society (BOS) website

Fixed braces

Fixed braces are a widely used type of orthodontic appliance.

A few days after a fixed brace is fitted, you'll be able to eat a normal range of foods. But you should avoid certain foods and drinks, such as toffee, hard sweets and fizzy drinks, as these can damage the appliance and your teeth.

If you're using a fixed appliance and you play a contact sport such as rugby, you should wear a gum shield to protect both your mouth and the appliance.

Fixed braces are usually made from metal, so they will be noticeable on the front of your teeth.

Many private orthodontists offer ceramic or clear braces, or metal braces fitted to the back of the teeth, although these are usually more expensive.

Removable braces

Removable braces can be used to correct minor problems, or as part of fixed-brace treatment.

They can also sometimes be used to discourage children from sucking their thumb, but this is not available on the NHS.

These braces should only be taken out of your mouth for cleaning or as a precaution during certain activities. Your orthodontist can advise you about this.

Functional appliances

Functional appliances can be used to treat problems with the position of the upper and lower jaw and teeth.

Most people need to wear them all the time. It's very important to follow your orthodontist's instructions about how and when to wear the appliance. If it's not worn correctly, the treatment will not work.

It may be necessary to remove your functional appliance for cleaning and while you're eating.


Headgear is used to correct the position of the back teeth or to keep them in position while the front teeth are being treated.

Most people only need to wear headgear in the evening and during the night. You will not be able to eat or drink while wearing headgear.

Other treatments

There are other types of braces available privately, such as aligners, or invisible or lingual braces that fit onto the back of the teeth.

You'll need to talk to your orthodontist to see whether they can be used for your problem. The cost of these braces is usually higher.


Retainers are used at the end of a course of orthodontic treatment. They hold straightened teeth in place while the surrounding gum and bone adjusts to their new position. Retainers can either be removable or fixed.

Under the NHS, your orthodontist is responsible for your care for 12 months after usual treatment ends. After this period, you'll have to pay privately for continuing care, repeated treatment, and any replacement or repair of retainers.

It's likely there will be some tooth movement if you stop wearing your retainer. Changes in the position of your teeth can continue throughout life and are normal.

The only way to have permanently straight teeth is to wear a retainer as advised.

Removing teeth

In some cases, it may be necessary to remove one of your teeth to correct the position and appearance of nearby teeth.


You're likely to achieve good results within 6 to 30 months of starting treatment as long as you:

  • take care of your teeth and gums
  • wear your appliances as instructed
  • follow your orthodontist's advice about what to eat and drink
  • wear your retainer every night to maintain the results; your orthodontist will talk to you about exactly how long you need to wear this

Page last reviewed: 03 April 2023
Next review due: 03 April 2026