Itching is common in pregnancy. Usually it's thought to be caused by raised levels of certain chemicals in the blood, such as hormones.
Later, as your bump grows, the skin of your tummy (abdomen) is stretched and this may also feel itchy.
However, itching can be a symptom of a liver condition called intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), also known as obstetric cholestasis (OC).
ICP needs medical attention. It affects 1 in 140 pregnant women in the UK.
Important: Coronavirus (COVID-19) update
If you're well, it's really important you go to all your appointments and scans for the health of you and your baby.
If you're pregnant, hospitals and clinics are making sure it's safe for you to go to appointments.
If you get symptoms of COVID-19, or you're unwell with something other than COVID-19, speak to your midwife or maternity team. They will advise you what to do.
Symptoms of ICP
The main symptom is itching, usually without a rash. For many women with ICP, the itching is often:
- more noticeable on the hands and feet, but can be all over the body
- worse at night
Other symptoms can include:
- dark urine
- pale poo
- yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice), but this is less common
Symptoms of ICP typically start from around 30 weeks of pregnancy, but it's possible to develop the condition as early as 8 weeks.
Non-urgent advice: Call your midwife or GP if you have itching that's:
- mild or distressing, possibly worse at night
- anywhere on your body, but may be worse on the palms of your hands and soles of your feet
Feeling itchy like this can be a sign of ICP and needs to be checked.
Wearing loose clothes may help prevent itching, as your clothes are less likely to rub against your skin and cause irritation.
You may also want to avoid synthetic materials and opt for natural ones, such as cotton, instead. These are "breathable" and allow the air to circulate close to your skin.
You may find having a cool bath or applying lotion or moisturiser can help soothe the itching.
Some women find that products with strong perfumes can irritate their skin, so you could try using unperfumed lotion or soap.
Mild itching is not usually harmful to you or your baby, but it can sometimes be a sign of a more serious condition, particularly if you notice it more in the evenings or at night.
Let your midwife or doctor know if you are experiencing itching so they can decide whether you need to have any further investigations.
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a potentially serious liver disorder that can develop in pregnancy.
Normally, bile acids flow from your liver to your gut to help you digest food.
In ICP, the bile acids do not flow properly and build up in your body instead. There's no cure for ICP, but it should go once you've had your baby.
ICP seems to run in families, but it can happen even if there is no family history. It is more common in women of south Asian origin, affecting around 1 in 70 to 80 pregnancies.
If you have had ICP in a previous pregnancy, you have a high chance of developing it again in another pregnancy.
Because of the link with stillbirth, you may be offered induction of labour. This could be any time from 35 weeks, depending on the level of bile acids in your blood.
If you have ICP, you will probably be advised to give birth in hospital under a consultant-led maternity team.
Diagnosis and treatment of ICP
ICP is diagnosed by excluding other causes of the itch. Your doctor will probably talk to you about your medical and family history and order a variety of blood tests.
These will include tests to check your liver function (LFT) and measure your bile acid levels (BA).
Monitoring your condition
If you are diagnosed with ICP, you will have regular liver function tests so your doctor can monitor your condition.
There is no agreed guideline on how often these tests should happen, but the Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists (RCOG) and the British Liver Trust advise weekly tests.
ICP Support, the UK's largest research group investigating ICP, also recommends weekly bile acid measurements. These readings help doctors recommend when your baby should be born.
If your LFTs and bile acids are normal and you continue to have severe itching, the blood tests should be repeated every week or 2, to keep an eye on them.
Creams and medicines for ICP
Creams, such as aqueous cream with menthol, are safe to use in pregnancy and can provide some relief from itching.
There are some medicines, such as ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), that help reduce bile acids and ease itching.
UDCA is considered safe to take in pregnancy, although it is prescribed on what is known as an "informed consent" basis as it has not been properly tested in pregnancy.
You may also be offered a vitamin K supplement. This is because ICP can affect your absorption of vitamin K, which is important for healthy blood clotting.
Most experts on ICP only prescribe vitamin K if the mother-to-be reports pale stools, has a known blood clotting problem, or has very severe ICP from early in pregnancy.
If you are diagnosed with ICP, your midwife and doctor will discuss your health and your options with you.
The Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists (RCOG) has more information about obstetric cholestasis, including what it means for you and your baby, and the treatment that's available. You can also get information about ICP from the British Liver Trust.