Week-by-week guide to pregnancy

group of pregnant women
When you're pregnant, you have lots of questions. Our week-by-week pregnancy guide is packed with lots of useful information. From what's happening inside your body, to how your baby is developing, and tips and advice on having a healthy pregnancy – this is your one-stop pregnancy guide!

Second trimester

Our week-by-week pregnancy guide is full of essential information. From staying fit in pregnancy to advice on your maternity rights, you'll find it all here. Happy reading!

Week 22 – your second trimester

Welcome to week 22 of your pregnancy. This is a good week to love your bump. Talk to it. Sing to it. Caress it with moisturiser and you might even feel a little flutter in response. It's all part of bonding with your unborn baby who, as you can probably tell, is getting bigger and bigger by the day…

What's happening in my body?

Many women are excited to see their bump grow – but less happy when they notice that it's covered in red and purple streaks - depending on their skin colour. These are stretch marks, caused by your pregnancy hormones and the rapid stretching of your skin. They might look scary, but they're harmless to you and the baby. There's not a lot that you can do to either prevent them or make them vanish, but you could try gently massaging your bump with a non-perfumed moisturiser. After the birth, the marks will probably fade to silver. If you can see them at all, they'll be your pregnancy badge of honour.

You might also notice that your breasts are becoming a bit leaky. This is their way of prepping for the birth. Use breast pads to stop your clothes getting stained – you might as well stock up, as you'll probably need a stack after the birth.

What a pain!

Piles are, quite literally, a pain in the bottom. Also known as haemorrhoids, they're swellings inside or around your anus and rectum. You could feel itchy and in pain when you poo. You may also see spots of blood or mucus.

Anyone can get piles, but they're more likely to pop up in pregnancy. That's because the pregnancy hormone, progesterone, relaxes the walls of your blood vessels and causes them to swell up. It's double trouble when your baby's weight pushes down on them.

The bottom line

You can help to avoid piles by drinking lots of water and choosing high-fibre foods such as, wholemeal bread, fruit and veg.

If you're in pain then…

  • try holding a cloth that's been dipped in icy water against your bottom
  • use moist toilet roll
  • avoid standing for long periods

Read some other ways to deal with piles in pregnancy.

Get help to quit smoking

If you're a smoker, you've probably tried to quit already. If it didn't work, have another go. We know it's not easy, but if you give up at any point in your pregnancy, the benefits for you and the baby are enormous. Each cigarette starves your baby of oxygen and increases the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth and cot death. You're at a crucial stage now, as your baby's tiny lungs are developing. Many women need help quitting, so don't be embarrassed to ask for it. Talk to your doctor or midwife about your local NHS Stop Smoking Services. You could also try the free SmokeFree Baby App. Good luck.

Second trimester pregnancy symptoms (at 22 weeks)

Aches and pains are very common in pregnancy, but sometimes it's hard to know what's serious and what's not. Your best bet is to talk to your midwife or doctor, or call NHS 111. If you're in severe pain, or start bleeding from your vagina, then get immediate help.

This week, your signs of pregnancy could include:

Tommy's, the baby charity, has produced a pregnancy guide with a further list of symptoms.

What does my baby look like?

Your baby, or foetus, is around 27.8cm long from head to toe, and weighs about 430g. That's approximately the size of a papaya and the weight of five tangerines.

The lungs are developing and your little one will be doing some breathing practice in your womb. Your baby is now swallowing small amounts of the amniotic fluid. This will usually stay in the bowels and then come out after the birth as a dark, sticky poo ('meconium').

Your baby's taste buds are developing and could be influenced by what you eat. Don't turn your baby into a junk food junkie – try and eat healthily and tuck into lots of fresh fruit and veg.

Action stations

This could be a good week to make a fuss of your partner. Partners can get a bit overlooked sometimes – to be fair, they're not lugging a baby around in their belly, but they may be feeling nervous and not sure how they fit into the picture. Could you try cooking a special meal? Here are some tasty recipes you could try.

This week you could also...

You don't have to tell your employer for several more weeks, but as soon as you do, you will have maternity rights and can attend antenatal appointments during paid work time. You can also ask for a risk assessment of your work place. If you want to wait, then the latest you can leave it is 15 weeks before the baby is due, which is around week 25. It will probably be rather obvious by then anyway!

It's a good time to tone up those muscles 'down under'. Gentle exercises can help to prevent leakage when you laugh, sneeze, cough or jump around on your future baby's trampoline. Get the muscles going by pretending that you're having a wee and then stopping the 'urine' midflow. Visit Tommy's for more ideas

Ask your midwife or doctor about online antenatal classes – they may be able to recommend one. The charity Tommy's has lots of useful information on antenatal classes and preparing you for birth.

Ask your partner if they would like to take part in the antenatal classes. Even if you've had children before, they're still worth going to as you can meet other parents-to-be. The NCT offers online antenatal classes with small groups of people that live locally to you.

Do your best to stop smoking, give up alcohol and go easy on the cappuccinos. We know that's easy to say, but hard to do. Ask your midwife or GP for support.

We can usually get enough vitamin D from sunlight, but as we are at home a lot more at the moment, you may not be getting enough. If you're pregnant, or breastfeeding, you should consider taking a daily vitamin D supplement. It's worth checking if you're entitled to free vitamins.

Get moving! It's recommended that pregnant women do 150 minutes of exercise throughout the week. You could start off with just 10 minutes of daily exercise - perhaps take a brisk walk outside. Check out Sport England's #StayInWorkOut online exercises (scroll to the pregnancy section). Listen to your body and do what feels right for you.

Don't eat for two! Eat for you. You don't need any extra calories until the third trimester, which starts in week 28. Try and eat healthily, with plenty of fresh fruit and veg, and avoid processed, fatty and salty foods. You may be able to get free milk, fruit and veg through the Healthy Start scheme.

This week's treat

Relax in a lovely warm bath (not hot, you don't want to overheat). Take the time to focus on the fluttering in your belly. Get to know your baby's movements. Do you think that's a kick or a punch or a hiccup? Enjoy every wriggle!

Tip: Choose non-scented bath products to help avoid thrush.

Go back to week 21

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