If you’re planning on getting pregnant, you can improve your chances of conceiving and having a successful pregnancy by following the steps on this page.
Take a 400 microgram (400mcg) supplement of folic acid every day while you're trying to get pregnant, and up until you're 12 weeks pregnant. This is advised due to the fact that folic acid reduces the risk of your baby having a neural tube defect, such as spina bifida. A neural tube defect is when the foetus's spinal cord (part of the body's nervous system) doesn't form normally. Women with epilepsy, diabetes and other medical conditions are recommended to take a 5 milligram (5mg) supplement.
You can get folic acid tablets at pharmacies, or talk to your GP about getting a prescription. Don't worry if you get pregnant unexpectedly and weren't taking folic acid supplements. Start taking them as soon as you find out, until you're past the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Read more about healthy diet in pregnancy and foods to avoid when you're pregnant.
Smoking during pregnancy has been linked to a variety of health problems, including premature birth, low birthweight, cot death (also known as sudden infant death syndrome or SIDS), miscarriage and breathing problems/wheezing in the first six months of life.
You can find useful information on the dangers of smoking during pregnancy, and advice on how to stop, on the Go Smokefree website.
Quitting can be hard, no matter how much you want to, but support is available. The NHS Pregnancy Smoking Helpline on 0800 169 9169 offers free help, support and advice on stopping smoking when you're pregnant. It’s open from 12pm to 9pm every day, and a specially trained person will talk to you. They can send you a free information pack and give you details of your local NHS stop smoking service.
Smoke from other people’s cigarettes can damage your baby, so ask your partner, friends and family not to smoke near you.
Read more about smoking and pregnancy.
Cut out alcohol
Don't drink alcohol if you're pregnant or trying to get pregnant. Alcohol can be passed to your unborn baby, and the Chief Medical Officers recommend that the safest approach is not to drink alcohol at all.
Drinking in pregnancy can lead to long-term harm to your baby, and the more you drink the greater the risk.
Find out about alcohol and pregnancy, alcohol units and tips for cutting down.
Keep to a healthy weight
If you’re overweight you may have problems getting pregnant, and if you’re having fertility treatment it’s less likely to work. Being overweight or obese (having a BMI over 30) also raises the risk of some pregnancy problems, such as high blood pressure, blood clots, miscarriage and gestational diabetes. Before you get pregnant you can use the BMI healthy weight calculator to work out your BMI. However, this may not be accurate once you're pregnant, so consult your midwife or doctor.
Having a healthy diet and getting moderate exercise are advised in pregnancy, and it’s important not to gain too much weight. You can keep to a healthy weight by eating a balanced diet and getting exercise.
Vaccinations and infections
Some infections, such as rubella (german measles), can harm your baby if you catch them in pregnancy.
Most people in the UK are immune to rubella thanks to the uptake of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination.
If you haven't had two doses of the MMR vaccine, or you're not sure if you have, ask your GP practice to check your vaccination history.
If you haven't had both doses or there's no record available, you can have the vaccinations at your GP practice.
You should avoid getting pregnant for one month after having the MMR vaccination, which means you'll need a reliable method of contraception.
You can find out about infections during pregnancy that can harm your baby, and what you can do to reduce your risk of getting them, including cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus (slapped cheek syndrome) and toxoplasmosis.
If you have a long-term condition
If you have a long-term or chronic condition, such as epilepsy or diabetes, it could affect the decisions you make about your pregnancy – for example, where you might want to give birth.
While there is usually no reason why you shouldn’t have a smooth pregnancy and a healthy baby, some health conditions do need careful management to minimise risks to both you and your baby. Have a pre-conception discussion with your specialist or GP. If you’re taking medication for a condition, don’t stop taking it without consulting your doctor.
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Sickle cell and thalassaemia
Sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassaemia are inherited blood disorders that are passed on from parents to children through unusual haemoglobin genes.
These disorders mainly affect people whose ancestors come from Africa, the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, India, Pakistan, south and southeast Asia, and the Middle East.
All pregnant women in England are offered a blood test to find out if they carry a gene for thalassaemia, and those at high risk of being a sickle cell carrier are offered a test for sickle cell disease and other haemoglobin variants.
These tests should be done before you're 10 weeks' pregnant. If the tests reveal you are a carrier of a gene for unusual haemoglobin, it is important that the biological father of your child is also tested.
If both parents are carriers, there is a one in four (25%) chance of the baby having sickle cell disease, thalassaemia or another haemoglobin disorder.
However, you don't have to wait until you're pregnant to have these tests. if you think you or your partner might be a carrier for sickle cell or thalassaemia, you can ask for a free blood test before pregnancy from either your GP or a local sickle cell and thalassaemia centre.
Read more about screening for sickle cell and thalassaemia in pregnancy.
More about having a healthy pregnancy
Vitamins and supplements that you should take or avoid, such as taking folic acid and vitamin D, and avoiding vitamin A.
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