Panic disorder 


Panic disorder

A clinical psychologist describes the symptoms of panic disorder, the treatments available, and what to do if someone you know has a panic attack.

Media last reviewed: 07/05/2013

Next review due: 07/05/2015

How common is panic disorder?

At least one in 10 people experience occasional panic attacks, which are usually triggered by a stressful event.

Panic disorder is where a person has recurring and regular panic attacks. In the UK, it affects about two in 100 people, and it's about twice as common in women as it is in men.

Dealing with panic attacks

Anxious? Dizzy? Confused? You could be experiencing a panic attack. Read about the symptoms and get practical tips on how to cope with a panic attack

Panic disorder is where you have recurring and regular panic attacks, often for no apparent reason.

Everyone experiences feelings of anxiety and panic at certain times during their lifetime. It's a natural response to stressful or dangerous situations.

However, for someone with panic disorder, feelings of anxiety, stress and panic occur regularly and at any time.


Anxiety is a feeling of unease. It can range from mild to severe and can include feelings of worry and fear.
There are several conditions that can cause severe anxiety including

  • phobias – an extreme or irrational fear of an object, place, situation, feeling or animal
  • generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) – a long-term condition that causes excessive anxiety and worry relating to a variety of situations
  • post-traumatic stress disorder – a condition with psychological and physical symptoms caused by distressing or frightening events

Panic attacks

A panic attack occurs when your body experiences a rush of intense psychological (mental) and physical symptoms.

You may experience an overwhelming sense of fear, apprehension and anxiety. As well as these feelings, you may also have physical symptoms such as:

  • nausea
  • sweating
  • trembling
  • a sensation that your heart is beating irregularly (palpitations)

The number of panic attacks you have will depend on how severe your condition is. Some people may have one or two attacks each month, while others may have several attacks a week.

Read more about the symptoms of panic disorder.

Panic attacks can be very frightening and intense, but they're not dangerous. An attack won't cause you any physical harm, and it's unlikely that you'll be admitted to hospital if you've had a panic attack.

What causes panic disorder?

As with many mental health conditions, the exact cause of panic disorder isn't fully understood.

However, it's thought the condition is probably linked to a combination of physical and psychological factors.

Read about the possible causes of panic disorder.

It’s important to be aware that some physical conditions and disorders can have similar symptoms to those of anxiety. For example:

  • mitral valve prolapse
  • postural orthostatic tachycardic syndrome (POTS)
  • anaemia
  • paroxysmal atrial tachycardia – episodes of rapid and regular heartbeats that begin and end abruptly
  • thyrotoxicosis – where large amounts of thyroid hormones are released into the bloodstream, causing rapid heartbeat, sweating, tremor and anxiety
  • poorly controlled diabetes
  • adrenal tumours – growths that develop on the adrenal glands (two triangular-shaped glands that form part of the kidneys)
  • carcinoid syndrome – a set of symptoms caused by some carcinoid tumours that can develop in the cells of the endocrine system (glands that produce and secrete hormones)
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome – causes overproduction of insulin and low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia)

Diagnosing panic disorder

See your GP if you have symptoms of anxiety or panic disorder (see above).

You may be diagnosed with panic disorder if you experience recurrent and unexpected panic attacks followed by at least one month of continuous worry or concern about having further attacks.

Read more about how panic disorder is diagnosed.

Treating panic disorder

The aim of treating panic disorder is to reduce the number of panic attacks you have and ease the severity of your symptoms.

Psychological therapy and medication are the two main types of treatment for panic disorder.

Read more about treating panic disorder and things you can do to help yourself during a panic attack.

Having panic disorder may affect your ability to drive. It's your legal obligation to inform the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) about a medical condition that could have an impact on your driving ability.

GOV.UK has further information and advice about driving with a disability or health condition.

Complications of panic disorder

Panic disorder is treatable, but to make a full recovery it's important that you seek medical help as soon as possible. Treatment for panic disorder is much more effective if it's given at an early stage.

Left untreated, panic disorder can become a very debilitating and isolating illness. It can also increase your risk of developing other mental health conditions, such as agoraphobia or other phobias.

Agoraphobia is a fear of being in situations where escape might be difficult, or help wouldn't be available if things go wrong.

Read more about the complications of panic disorder.

Page last reviewed: 15/08/2014

Next review due: 15/08/2016


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The 14 comments posted are personal views. Any information they give has not been checked and may not be accurate.

Manit0ba said on 13 June 2014

This may be of value to you or others suffering from panic attacks.
I wrote it for a family member who suffers from them, and included everything I have learned about panic attacks, including my own experiences, background, causes, experiences, and solutions.

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King barry said on 09 June 2014

I have started surfing from panick attacks agen I am 19 and wen I can't really remember wen I was about 13 I went to Australia to see my broiler get married gust befour the weeding I had my first pretty big attack wen I almost died (I won't say) after that I got dipreshion that got Worce and Worce at last I left school and that was a bad choice the very last soshioal conekshion i had was lost I wanted to go to sleep and never wake up agen even the kitchen knives lookt prity sharp I had panick attacks evray day wen in thrount of people at last (doint ask why) I joind the army i was shaking at the trout I had to go in but to be honest I made lots of frendes and I felt so much stronger even wen I was getting skreemd at right in the face it made me so much better but now I have left training for the last 5 months and things are going dwon hill agen not as bad as it was but it might get kick out soon dwon to my spine and having to go back to camp whare i doint have much freands tomorrow is having a hard affect on me my panick is slowly creeping back wen I'm their in big army crowds I will soon be gone and hade no way of talking to people agen which seems nice but verry bad for me at the same time I can't relly reamber much thes days my brain is to fried thes days about whot it used to be like but I hope it won't go as bad as it was. Thais is always so wone Worce off.

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Sian66 said on 04 May 2014

Suehill1972 my 15 year old son has started suffering these. Seems to have been brought on my exam stress. His last a couple of hours with uncontrollable shaking and fear. It is awful to not be able to do anything. Our GP has given him tablets and he has counselling. Referred to camhs too. Rescue remedy helps and talking about nonsense too. Favourite TV programme or film. Plans for day out etc. telling him it will end and he is safe seems to calm. Telling him it's his naughty sub conscience playing games and we need to out smart it. They are awful episodes and as GCSE exams are imminent it is so unfair it is affecting his grades. Hang in there and just support and distract.

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suehill1972 said on 02 May 2014

my daughter has started to have panic attack whilst away with the school (not her first time away from home) started by last 90 mins+ not they last for 30 mins+ but having them up 2 4 times a day I feel so helpless and she is so scared been to doctors had bloods and ecg's not getting help from school nurse once a week with counselling and has been referred to camms anyone else with a child having panic attacks would really appreciate your support

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bubbie1167 said on 31 March 2014

Hi im 16 and I have been having panic attacks for almost a year now and they are someone regular , I find that I cant really do much that is fun because I am worried about having one ,it started of as only when I was sceard but now its worse , I had a panic attack in school a few weeks ago while doing a assessment because my phone whent off and I didn't expect it the next thing I know if I cant breath and found it had to walk , they went away for a while but they have come back now evan worse any idea how to help ??

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Alie80 said on 23 February 2014

I am in my 30's and usually lead a normal happy but busy life.. Recently I went abroad and suffered really badly with anxiousness and what I would describe as a panic attack. I couldn't sleep through worry and my heart was racing leading me to panic that it was about to stop beating altogether! It was horrible and really frightening..

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marytes said on 16 January 2014

I have had a lot of panic attacks, with all the symptoms sweats racing heart feeling sick tingling hands and feet. Have had all the tests ECG, blood test everything normal. It all started while I am going through the menopause. Starts with a flush which causes palpatations then I get stressed and the heart beats faster and its a catch 22. Have tried all the things deep breathing, trying to relax easier said than done when you think you are going to die. Especially as in the last three months have lost two really close friends with a heart attack. I have had numerous tests ECG, bloods, examination from top to toe. Kept in the hospital for six hours all to no avail, that is till the next time I have one. Might try and get antidepressant to see if they help me. Any advice please....

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brentmdwhite said on 13 July 2013

Hi I have had repeated panic attacks after my brother had a motor bike accident 7 years ago went through this for about a year my now wife helped me every step of the way. Now they have come back this time more severe I had one 2 week's ago I haven't eaten or slept since properly, my wife works away for 3 days at a time and I can only explain this feeling as hell. I'm trying not to let it affect my kids but I can't stop bursting into tears my heart won't slow down I'm scared and I don't know why. It's no where near as bad when my wife is here but I'm leaning on her to much and its causing problems I have to get this sorted now!! Great video has actually helped me because I feel like there may be a way out I just have to get through the day first!! Sorry to bore its helped writing it down

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Elliemae1993 said on 19 June 2013

I am 20 years old and I've had a pain attack before when I was about 17 since then I just though it was a one off thing. But this past week has been horrible :( I have had horrible thoughts and my mind won't stop going through loads of bad memories and I stress and panic and can't cope with them, ive hada bad child hood and went through domestic violence last year with an ex boyfriend. I havn't been able to sleep and woke up at 4:30am crying and panicking then I had a panic attack, I had my boyfriend with me and he's really understanding. I have worries and stress everyday now and I feel like I can't deal with them and I'm scared. I thought I was going crazy until I read this :) I have the doctors tomorrow to discuss it all. Im quite nervous but I must want to tackle this once and for all and I will do anything it takes. Thankuoi for helping me understand :)

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martin1970 said on 03 June 2013

on and off for many years I have suffered with low moods and stress - maybe like many people , but more recently ive been having cbt for bereavement and sleep problems, but very recently I have suffered a number of severe panic attacks which my gp knows to his knowledge I have never had before , these have been quite frightening and like I say alien to me, these episodes will not be related to any of my other prior condition surely and are a separate issue?

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luvurself said on 15 April 2013

@Angelast !! I totally agree that misdiagnose is worse. Identification of root cause is essential. I have been running for help for almost 2 years now, going through CBT it helped in specifying physio-psychological behaviors but does not define whether it is mood disorder, chronic stress/ anxiety/depression or just another stressful life phase. I personally think it helps if I look into my psychopathology because I ignored it in my late teens considering must be with tough exams and other life related stress.

And I also do wonder and worry how many would be out there with almost no awareness, misdiagnose and how much it would be effecting their own life and people around them.

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angelast said on 25 January 2013

I was misdiagnosed with panic disorder and general anxiety disorder 7 years ago. I had all the symptoms bit could not find any causes or mental triggers. I noticed I usually had worse racing heart style attacks when it was hot or I stood up. I had to many symptoms to list, some constant, some transient, some variable, some recurring, some extremely bizarre. They included visual disturbances, difficulty focusing eyes, double vision, fatigue, paradthesias, extreme panic attacks, nervousness, tremors, difficulty swallowing, sweating, hot flashes, uncontrollable hyperventilating, palpitations, very fast heart rate when stood up, extremely variable bp and hr, ice cold extremities... and more, the doctors had me convinced for 7 years I was a hypochondriac and all symptoms were from anxiety/depression.

By accident I came across online article about dysautomnia & a manifestation called pots where the body can't relate its hr/bp properly, and after showing a new Dr I have been dxd with this and autonomic neuropathy and am now starting medicine - not antidepressants anymore.

If I hadn't found out myself I know Dr would never have tested/referred me and Id never get treatment. They passed me round in circles through mental health teams, never considered once it could be physical despite psychiatrists not finding a serious problem. And simply, if all my symptoms were in my head I must have had psychosis!

I worry other young women like me will just believe the doctors and never be able to find out why they are ill and will think they are mad or give up hope getting better, I nearly did, sheer luck brought it to my attention.
So though it could be quite rare, if you've been searching for years for a mystery illness everyone tells you is in your head affecting your heart rate/circulation and nervous system - ESP if you get worse symptoms on standing our if you've been stood up too long, just look into it, just incase.

No-one else wil look into it for you.

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derekn7 said on 16 September 2012

Panic disorders and anxiety can also be caused bu allergies, i suffered from panic and anxiety only to find out it was from damp in my house, animals also cause the same symptoms. If you have panic attacks or anxiety look for allergy causing things that you use or are exposed to on a daily basis and you will find the cure. As with most illness a cure can be found in your lifestyle choices.

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panicfreesteps said on 03 March 2012

I had panic attacks and related conditions for 29 years from the age of 11 years old. Life opportunities were cut off, my life was very poor and I was branded as having a mental health condition all that time.

I have now completely cured all my conditions after removing chemicals from food and drinks in my daily diet and have proved this scientifically that these chemicals give you panic attacks and anxiety.

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