E-cigarette 'vapers' using them to quit smoking

Behind the Headlines

Friday April 12 2013

Over 3 million e-cigarettes were sold in 2012

“Electronic cigarettes have helped almost nine out of ten smokers quit tobacco completely” the Metro reports. The claim is based on the results of an online survey on e-cigarette use and their effects on tobacco consumption.

The survey’s participants were mainly recruited via the websites of two leading manufactures of e-cigarettes.

The survey responses report an overall positive experience of e-cigarettes, for example:


What is 'vaping'?

Smoking an e-cigarette is called 'vaping' because the device produces a vapour containing nicotine, which is inhaled by the user.

  • 75% of the sample said it had been several weeks or months since their last cigarette
  • 91% said that use of the e-cigarette had ‘substantially decreased’ their craving for tobacco cigarettes
  • 70% didn’t have as much of an urge to smoke

A significant limitation to the study is that the survey was self-selecting; people using the brand’s websites chose to take part.

It could be the case that people with a positive experience of using e-cigarettes were more likely to take part than people with negative experiences. So the results may not be representative. Also, the study did not assess whether these people actually quit smoking as a result of e-cigarette use.

This means the results cannot be compared to the effectiveness of stop-smoking treatments that have been properly tested and does not prove that e-cigarettes are an effective method of helping people to quit smoking.

Further research comparing e-cigarettes with other forms of ‘quitting tools’ (such as nicotine patches) in the form of a large randomised controlled trial or cohort study is required.

 

Where did the story come from?

The study was a cross-sectional survey carried out by researchers from the University of East London and was published in the peer-reviewed medical journal Addiction. The study received no sources of financial support.

The Metro’s headline that ‘Electronic cigarettes ‘help nine out of ten smokers quit tobacco completely’ appears to have been wrongly interpreted from the results of the survey.

While 91% of respondents said that use of the e-cigarette had ‘substantially decreased’ their craving for tobacco, a reduction in craving, while helpful, does not necessarily mean a person has successfully stopped smoking.

The Metro also failed to highlight the inherent limitation of the study (which the researchers flagged up in their conclusion). That is, a cross sectional self-selecting survey, such as this, is unable to provide evidence on the effectiveness of e-cigarettes for helping smokers to quit.

 

What kind of research was this?

Electronic cigarettes are battery-operated devices that deliver variable quantities of nicotine via inhaled vapour. The process of smoking an e-cigarette mimics smoking a tobacco cigarette and is sometimes referred to as ‘vaping’. The market for e-cigarettes has been increasing every year since their introduction in 2004, with 3.5 million sold in 2012.

There is currently said to be a lack of trial data on e-cigarettes, though three published studies have suggested they can provide moderate relief of craving and withdrawal symptoms.

Much more research is also said to be needed on the nature of e-cigarette use, including:

  • who uses them
  • how effective they are for quitting/harm reduction
  • how safe they are
  • how addictive they are

The current study is a cross sectional survey which aims to characterise the use of e-cigarettes and their effects in a sample of users of the Electronic Cigarette Company (TECC) and Totally Wicked E-Liquid (TWEL) brands. These two brands are widely used in the UK.

The survey recruited participants via the brands' websites and was hosted on the University of East London’s website.

As a cross sectional sample of a specific population group, this study is a start for research into these products, but can only tell us the experiences of people, who chose to take part in the survey, at one point in time.

It cannot reliably tell us how effective e-cigarettes are in helping smokers to quit nicotine or smoking, or whether e-cigarettes are a better alternative to ‘traditional’ nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs) such as patches or gum.

 

What did the research involve?

People were recruited from the TECC and TWEL websites and online survey data was collected between September 2011 and May 2012. The questionnaires were completed by 1,347 people from 33 countries (72% European). They had an average age of 43 years, 70% were male and 96% were of white ethnic origin.

The questionnaire was described as taking 15-20 minutes and covered six areas:

Demographic details

  • age
  • gender
  • ethnicity
  • education
  • country

Current smoking status

  • current smoker
  • ex-smoker
  • never-smoker (fewer than 20 cigarettes in your lifetime)

Pattern of tobacco smoking

This was assessed using a validated ‘checklist’, designed to assess levels of cigarette dependence, known as the Fagerström Test of Cigarette Dependence (FTCD).

This involves questions such as “How soon after waking do you/did you smoke your first cigarette?” and “Do you find it difficult to refrain from smoking in places where it is forbidden?”

Similar adapted questions were used for ex-smokers, who were also asked about the length of time since stopping.

Pattern of e-cigarette use

Including:

  • length of use
  • product and cartridge type
  • strength and preferred flavours
  • amount used (in ml and puffs; where participants indicated a range, maximum daily use was used)
  • reasons for use (such as a complete or partial alternative to smoking)
  • dependence on the e-cigarette and attempts to cut down use

Personal experience of e-cigarette use

Including:

  • satisfaction and ‘hit’
  • acceptability by others
  • taste
  • effects on craving
  • impact on smoking behaviour
  • respiratory effects
  • whether a person experienced any side effects when using an e-cigarette

Results were analysed separately for the full sample (which included four never-smokers who used the e-cigarette), and separately for ex-smokers (1,123) and current smokers (218), and for males (897) and females (390).

 

What were the basic results?

A total of 1,347 participants (98% of the sample) had filled in enough survey data to be used in the analysis. Average duration of e-cigarette use was 10 months.

Most people heard about the e-cigarette from the internet, followed by personal contacts. Almost half the respondents (49%) used the e-cigarette within six to 30 minutes of waking and 23% used within five minutes of waking. Ex-smokers reported using the e-cigarette sooner after waking than current smokers, used higher amounts daily, and had also been using the e-cigarette for longer.

Over half of all respondents (56%) replied ‘yes’ to the question ‘Do you use the e-cigarette in the same manner as cigarettes?’. Seventy-six percent of the whole sample reported that they had started using the e-cigarette as a complete alternative to smoking, and 22% stated ‘other reasons’, which included to quit smoking and for health reasons.

Three-quarters of the whole sample said that they had not smoked for several weeks to months since using the e-cigarette and 14% said their cigarette use had dramatically decreased (with ex-smokers answering more affirmatively to these questions). The majority (91%) said that use of the e-cigarette had ‘substantially decreased’ their craving for tobacco cigarettes. Seventy percent said they don’t have the urge to smoke so much anymore.

Overall satisfaction with the product was high, with the majority of the sample reporting that e-cigarette use feels healthier to them and has helped their breathing.

Though males and females differed in some aspects, such as type of e-cigarettes used (for example, women preferring chocolate/sweet flavours), there were no differences in their responses on reasons for use or the effects.

Fewer than 16% of all participants reported any adverse effect of e-cigarettes. The most common was throat irritation.

 

How did the researchers interpret the results?

The researchers conclude that e-cigarettes are used primarily as an alternative to smoking and that most found that e-cigarette use has helped reduce their craving and substantially reduce their tobacco use. Most users also found them satisfying to use and believe them to be safer and healthier than smoking.

 

Conclusion

This cross sectional survey of 1,347 people who were recruited via the Electronic Cigarette Company (TECC) and Totally Wicked E-Liquid (TWEL) brands' websites – the two brands most widely used in the UK – finds an overall positive experience on the use of e-cigarettes.

The majority of the sample had started using the e-cigarette as an alternative to smoking, a smaller number used them to help them quit smoking.

Three-quarters of the sample said that it had been several weeks to months since their last cigarette, 91% said that use of the e-cigarette had ‘substantially decreased’ their craving for tobacco cigarettes, and 70% didn’t have as much of an urge to smoke.

These are positive results for the marketers of e-cigarettes, but the most important thing to remember is that this is a cross sectional sample that can only tell us the experiences of a specific population group – people who were recruited from two e-cigarette brand websites.

As they were already using e-cigarettes and chose to take part in the survey it is possible that this sample is over-representative of people who have found e-cigarettes to be beneficial.

We do not know what the experiences and effectiveness would be in a wider sample of smokers from the general population who tried e-cigarettes.

Overall, the study reports on the positive experiences of a large sample of users but no conclusions on the effectiveness of e-cigarettes in helping smokers to quit can be made from this study. This is not to say that e-cigarettes are ineffective, but rather, the study in question cannot provide a definitive answer one way or the other.

The best way to evaluate the effectiveness of e-cigarettes would be to conduct a randomised controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of e-cigarettes with a sham alternative. However, it is likely to be difficult to blind such a trial, meaning that people would be aware whether they were using the e-cigarette or not which would be a limitation of such a trial.

An alternative that would help to shed more light on this issue would be a carefully conducted cohort study which followed people using the e-cigarette over time to see how many of them were successfully able to quit, and what other things were associated with success (such as number or prior quit attempts, duration of past smoking habit, etc).

Analysis by Bazian. Edited by NHS Choices. Follow Behind the Headlines on Twitter.

Links to the headlines

Electronic cigarettes ‘help nine out of ten smokers quit tobacco completely’. Metro, April 11 2013

E-cigarettes primarily used to quit tobacco, study finds. Fox News, April 5 2013

Links to the science

Dawkins L, Turner J, Roberts A, Soar K. ‘Vaping’ profiles and preferences: an online survey of electronic cigarette users. Addiction. Published online March 28 2013

 

Further reading

ASH Scotland. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)/E-cigarettes – fact sheet (PDF 290 KB). August 2012

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Comments

The 6 comments posted are personal views. Any information they give has not been checked and may not be accurate.

Simon9131 said on 21 December 2013

I am a very passionate convert.

The bullet points:-
30 a day
Not smoked a cigarette since I bought a 'vape'
spending £0.12p per day instead of £13
Health definitely better, no cough, breathing easier, and feeling better..

I have been using a personal vapouriser now for 9 weeks that I buy fluid for. The complete unit with battery and charger cost £15. A second one as a backup and some fluid meant my costs were £40 in a shop to make the switch.

I was 30 a day (have not touched a cigarette in 9 weeks now - and it was easy..) that's approximately £13/day I was spending..

I use about 2ml of vapour fluid a day. That's 50 days for £6 = 12p per day - even at 'full retail' £4 for 10ml its 80p per day instead of £13.

1% of the cost of smoking and the easiest way and most enjoyable way for me (and my family) of any way I have tried.

Yes its the health that's the driver, but this is also the cheapest alternative by far.

And I enjoy it ! Seems a real win win win ...I am now giving them to friends and other smokers I meet, in an evangelical way !.

I sincerely hope the regulation does not mean a price hike when this is such a fabulous solution.

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lozNWUK1991 said on 12 July 2013

So, let me get this straight.
When I did a short stint, working at her majesties pleasure, we were visited by a number of health officials to educate and further rehabilitate us, we were lead to believe that it was the other hundreds of chemicals that created all of the problems associated with smoking. Now that an alternative to smoking has been released in the form of "vaping" the NHS' s stance is that we are not capable of self prescribing, that it may still be a bad substance, whats paracetamol then?
We can buy that from the corner shop.
I am no fool, I know many things that give pleasure can be damaging, dangerous or even fatal.
Chocolate for instance can clog your arteries with cholesterol due to high levels of saturated fat, so should we go to the chemist for that too?
What about riding motorcycles, can kill or mame the rider, should we ban them then?
I could go on almost forever, the simple fact of the matter is, life is not safe and never will be.
It is true that people need to be able to make informed desisions and that the most credible health organisation in the uk to do these trials are the ones we entrust with our health every day.
However as a hard working member of this country and society, i look at this apparently "democratic" country and in this case i say no. No i will not stand by and watch as this country turns into a dictatorship.
We, the people have the power to have things the way we want them, isnt that what a democracy is? The majority vote?
Personally i truly believe it comes down to the amount of tax on cigarettes and the NHS' s funding.
If they make e cigs a prescription only drug then they may as well do the same with tabacco, alcohol, coffee, chocolate, and any other "drugs" why not throw food in also and just call it a supermarket?
People of britain. If you still believe in free choice, stand up and have your voice heard. Before its too late.

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lubylou12 said on 12 June 2013

Of 15 people i know that smoked, 10 of them now use e cigs, Me and my partner were the first to get one and most of my family and friends have followed on after, all of us have quit, not one of us has failed, I bought my mum one who as tried everything else to give up and for the first time she has gone 6 week without a real cig, the longest ever in 32 years, i am so proud. SO me, my mum, my sister, two uncles, aunt, partner, and many friends have made an easy more healthy switch, and we are about to get it snatched away from us, and i can tell you, nearly all of us will end up back on real cigs if this is allowed to happen, I use my e cig proudly and am always promoting it when people ask about it.



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brian100 said on 24 April 2013

I tried patches, gum and zyban in an attempt to quit smoking. But after 40 years I one day discovered e-cigarettes. I havent looked back since. Most of the vaping community agree that there could be risks associated with vaping, but they are far, far safer than smoking, and if the option to vape is taken away, most of us will be back smoking again.

I can see that the reason your people are against electronic cigarettes. Because it means you wont be able to sell your overpriced and inefective gums and patches. Well I believe it is too late for you now. We have a huge number, 500,000, in the UK alone. They will not allow their life saving alternative to be taken away from them. Let alone the countless companies that are now selling the devices and e-liquid.

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Converted Vapour said on 16 April 2013

This research is very useful and adds to the mounting evidence already out there that ecigs do more good than harm.

However, they have already been banned in some countries and there is a growing movement within the EU to severely restrict the sale of ecigs.

Unlike with other items, ecigs have been labelled harmful until it can be proven otherwise.

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ChrisPrice said on 12 April 2013

Thank you for your balanced appraisal of this study.

The study has its limitations, as you mention. The press article is a little, perhaps, over-active. The title of the press article is not very helpful. Typically, press releases that accompany research, and media articles, are titled to 'sell' rather than present an accurate picture of the material they contain.

The 75% success rate we find when looking deeper within the article is probably, as you say, not going to be representative of real-world results. As we all know, mentoring and good support are critical to the success of any smoking cessation or replacement attempt. For this reason, it is perfectly possible that within a family & friends context, an 80% success rate at 12 months might be achieved with e-cigarettes; just as a 30% success rate at 12 months is quite likely (and is reported) for ecig users isolated from support/advice. Mentoring - and the quality of it - is vitally important.

Even so, e-cigarette substitution of cigarettes is likely to be highly successful in the UK. We estimate that 25% of smokers will have switched by 2020, or 2025 at the latest, judging by the current rate of uptake (about 7% have switched so far).

Sweden reduced their smoking prevalence by about 50%, with the use of Snus, and the same or better seems very likely here with ecigs. As Sweden is the world leader in reducing smoking-related morbidity and mortality, we know that this approach works. Plus, it works past the 20% barrier - a rather important factor that seems widely ignored (see: The 20% Rule, on the ECCA UK website).

Finally, can I please make the important point that use of a Harm Reduction product specifically excludes any form of cessation, by definition. If e-cigarettes were to become unavailable, almost all ecig owners would return to smoking. They have switched to an alternative; they are employing substitution, not cessation.

Chris Price
Secretary, ECCA UK
www.eccauk.org

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Analysis by Bazian

Edited by NHS Choices

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