Diabetes: the facts

Diabetes is a long-term condition that affects the body’s ability to process sugar or glucose. It can have serious health consequences. However, with careful management, people with diabetes can continue to lead full, healthy and active lives.

People with diabetes are unable to stop the level of glucose in their blood from getting too high. This is because a hormone called insulin is either absent from their body, or not working properly.

Glucose is found in starchy foods, such as pasta, rice, bread and potatoes, as well as in fruit and sweet foods. When we eat food that contains glucose, insulin helps to move it from our blood into our cells, where it's broken down to produce energy. In people with diabetes, when the body doesn’t make enough insulin, or the insulin doesn’t work properly, that process is interrupted and glucose builds up in the blood. This is what causes the damaging symptoms of the condition.

Ethnicity and diabetes risk

 

New healthy weight advice was issued in July 2013 to minority ethnic groups to reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Find out more in "What's your BMI?"

In England in 2010, the number of adults diagnosed with diabetes was 3.1 million, accounting for around 1 in 14 of the population. If trends continue as they are, this figure is expected to rise to 4.6 million by 2030, representing nearly 1 in 10 of the population. 

It is estimated that a further 850,000 people may have diabetes, but haven't been diagnosed. These people may be experiencing symptoms they can’t explain, or they may assume that the symptoms are due to other causes, such as getting older or having a busy lifestyle.

Types of diabetes

There are two main types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes – this is when the body can't produce any insulin. This type of diabetes usually occurs before the age of 40 and accounts for only around 10% of all cases. It's the most common form of childhood diabetes.
  • Type 2 diabetes – this is when the body either doesn't make enough insulin, or the body becomes resistant to insulin, so it doesn't work properly. It's the most common form of diabetes, accounting for around 90% of cases. It's frequently linked with being overweight. 

Both forms of diabetes are life-long conditions that have potentially serious consequences. Left untreated, diabetes can lead to heart disease, stroke, nerve damage and blindness.

Diabetes is the most common cause of visual impairment and blindness among people of working age. It is also the most common cause of kidney failure and non-traumatic lower limb amputations. People with diabetes are up to five times more likely to have heart disease and stroke, compared to those without diabetes.

However, if treated effectively, people with diabetes can reduce the risk of those complications and also reduce the day-to-day symptoms. 

Many people with diabetes lead lives as healthy and active as those without the condition. There are world-class athletes who have diabetes, such as Sir Steve Redgrave.

Symptoms of diabetes

The symptoms of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes include:

  • increased thirst
  • drinking a lot of fluids
  • passing a lot of urine
  • being tired for no reason
  • weight loss
  • genital itching or repeated bouts of thrush
  • slow healing of wounds
  • blurred vision

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes typically develop over a few weeks and quickly become very obvious.

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes can develop more slowly, over a period of months. Some people with type 2 diabetes have very mild symptoms, which they believe have other causes. It is possible to have no symptoms at all and be diagnosed by a routine blood test.

Treatment for diabetes

The aim of any diabetes treatment is to keep blood sugar levels as normal as possible.

People with diabetes need to develop an understanding of how food and physical activity affect their blood glucose level. 

As people with type 1 diabetes can't produce any insulin, they must put insulin into their bodies regularly for the rest of their lives. This is key to the successful treatment of type 1 diabetes. The most common way to do this is with daily insulin injections. People with type 1 diabetes can be taught to inject themselves. Alternatively, some people with type 1 diabetes use an insulin pump. This is a device about the size of a pack of cards, which sends insulin into the body through a thin tube.

In type 2 diabetes, changing to a healthier diet and lifestyle can often control the condition without the need for further treatment. You can learn more about achieving a healthy weight in our lose weight section. There is also advice on how to have a healthy diet in our food and diet section.

However, most people with type 2 diabetes will eventually need treatment with tablets, and some will need insulin injections.

People with diabetes may also take medication to reduce the risk of health complications. For example, many take pills to reduce blood pressure and some take statins to reduce their cholesterol.

Diabetes

More than 3 million people in England live with diabetes. Another 850,000 have diabetes but don't know it. In this video, an expert explains what diabetes is, and the complications that can arise.

Media last reviewed: 20/02/2013

Next review due: 20/02/2015

Page last reviewed: 26/09/2014

Next review due: 26/09/2016

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The 2 comments posted are personal views. Any information they give has not been checked and may not be accurate.

Doug B1a said on 21 December 2012

I've recently found out that I've got type 2 diabetes and I'm taking pills, Metformin, to control it as well as exercise and a change in diet. I must admit that finding out that I'm now diabetic has scared me as I don't know what's going to happen in the future, I've heard some bad stories about heart attacks and amputations etc. I felt ok before I found out. I went into hospital because of something else but while I was their they diagnosed me with an ulcer and T2 diabetes. I'll be glad to see the end of 2012 and hope that 2013 is better.

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20emmylou10 said on 16 March 2010

i am 20 years old my name is emma...........i have resently bin diagnosed with having type 1 diabetes.. i had the symptoms for over a year and never knew.. i lost 3 stone and i was drinking gallons of water and making alot of trips to the toilet in the night... i eventually went to see my gp and done a urine test and a blood test wer it was confurmed that i had diabetes. that day i was rusehd into hospital wer i stayed for 5 days because i had ketones in me urine which were attacking my fat thats why i lost soo much weight i was then told by my doctor that i should have been in a coma which is quite scary.... . i now have to inject myself with insulin twice a day... my bloods are still high at the moment but im finally learning to get me head round living with diabetes and i know things will get easier
emma x :D

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