How to keep your teeth clean

Brush your teeth with fluoride toothpaste twice a day for about two minutes to help keep your teeth and mouth healthy.

Plaque is a film of bacteria that coats your teeth if you don't brush them properly. It contributes to gum disease and tooth decay. Tooth brushing stops plaque building up. Try to make sure you brush every surface of all your teeth.

Toothbrush tips

  • Replace your brush or brush attachment every three months
  • Never share your toothbrush, as this can spread infections
  • Brush your teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste for about two minutes

When should I brush my teeth?

Brush your teeth for about two minutes last thing at night before you go to bed and on one other occasion everyday.

Your dentist or hygienist may give you further advice based on your own dental health and needs.

Should I use an electric or manual toothbrush?

It doesn't matter whether you use an electric or manual toothbrush. They're both equally good as long as you brush all the surfaces of all your teeth and you use fluoride toothpaste. However, some people find it easier to clean their teeth thoroughly with an electric toothbrush. 

What should I look for in a toothbrush?

For most adults, a toothbrush with a small head and a compact, angled arrangement of long and short round-end bristles is fine. Medium or soft bristles are best for most people.

If you're using an electric brush, one with an oscillating or rotating head may be more effective than a manual toothrush.

However, making sure you thoroughly clean your teeth at least twice a day is more important than the type of brush you use. If in doubt, ask your dentist. 

What type of toothpaste should I use?

It's important to use a toothpaste with the right concentration of fluoride. Check the packaging to find out how much fluoride each brand contains.

  • All children can use family toothpaste containing 1,350-1,500ppm (parts per million) fluoride, providing you supervise brushing up until the age of seven and make sure children don't lick or eat toothpaste from the tube. Children under six who don't have tooth decay can use a lower-strength children's toothpaste, but make sure it contains at least 1,000ppm fluoride. 
  • Below the age of three, children should use just a smear of toothpaste.
  • Children aged between three and six years should use a pea-sized blob of toothpaste.
  • Children over the age of seven and young adults should use a toothpaste that contains 1,350-1,500ppm fluoride.
  • Adults should use a toothpaste that contains at least 1,350ppm fluoride.

Your dentist may advise you or your child to use a toothpaste with a higher concentration of fluoride if you need it.

It's fine for babies and children to use the family toothpaste rather than a special children's toothpaste, provided it contains the right concentration of fluoride. Don't let children lick or eat toothpaste from the tube. 

How to brush your teeth

Make sure you brush all the surfaces of all your teeth, which should take about two minutes. Remember to brush the inside surfaces, outside surfaces and the chewing surfaces of your teeth.

Don't rinse with water or mouthwash straight after toothbrushing

After brushing, spit out any excess toothpaste, but don't rinse your mouth with water or mouthwash. 

That's because rinsing with water or mouthwash (even a fluoride mouthwash) immediately after toothbrushing will wash away the concentrated fluoride in the remaining toothpaste, thus diluting it and reducing its preventive effects.

If you need any more information on your toothbrushing technique, speak to your dental team. 

How to help children brush their teeth

Children need to be helped or supervised brushing their teeth until they're at least seven years old.

Brush DJ is a free NHS approved app that makes brushing teeth more fun.

How to use dental floss

Flossing isn't just for dislodging food wedged between your teeth. Regular flossing may also reduce gum disease and bad breath by removing plaque that forms along the gum line. It's best to floss before brushing your teeth.

  • Take 12-18 inches (30-45cm) of floss or dental tape and grasp it so you have a couple of inches of floss taut between your hands.
  • Slip the floss or dental tape between the teeth and into the area between your teeth and gums as far as it will go.
  • Floss with 8-10 strokes, up and down between each tooth, to dislodge food and plaque.  

Read about why it's important to floss.

How to use interdental brushes

You can use interdental brushes or single-tufted brushes instead of flossing, especially if there are gaps between your teeth. The brush should fit snugly between the teeth.

Never use toothpicks to remove trapped food from between your teeth as you may damage your gums, which could lead to an infection.

Your dentist or hygienist will be able to advise you on the best way to use interdental cleaning for your teeth.

Read more about interdental brushes.

Should I use mouthwash?

Using a mouthwash that contains fluoride can help prevent tooth decay, but don't use mouthwash straight after brushing your teeth. Choose a different time, such as after lunch. And don't eat or drink for 30 minutes after using a fluoride mouthwash.


Common Q&As

Read answers to the most common questions that people have about dental health, including:




Page last reviewed: 02/12/2013

Next review due: 02/12/2015


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The 11 comments posted are personal views. Any information they give has not been checked and may not be accurate.

Josh_Cochran said on 09 April 2015

Good Tips!

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John Sutcliffe said on 19 December 2014

I use to use a toothpick to remove trapped food and I can add another reason not to use them apart from the potential for harming you gums - I flicked out a filling and ended up paying nearly £100 to have it replaced.

Needless to say I don't use a toothpick anymore.

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rose ford said on 28 August 2014

As there as many benefits of Teeth whitening, there are some risks involved in the processes of teeth whitening. The main risk in these processes is that these teeth whitening processes make our teeth sensitive too.

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MrsForbes said on 03 August 2013

I think this page could do with a lot more information. You need to keep an appointment with your dentist every 6 months for a scale & polish. I brush morning & night & I floss after every meal as I can't stand the thought of having any food stuck in my teeth. I also use 2 different toothpastes. One with little bits in it that grit against your teeth giving them a really good clean & then I use a whitening tooth paste. I also use a tongue brush to get rid of any germs & then I use an antibacterial mouthwash. My dentist always compliments me on my oral health. I also only drink water so I don't really get the staining that others do.

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blablubbb said on 03 August 2013

Wrong technique!
I learned to brush my teeth "red to white", meaning to put the brush on the gum and brush in direction of the teeth. The webpage of a famous brand for brushes describes it as:
"Tilt the brush at a 45 degree angle against the gumline and roll the bristles away from the gumline."
This is also in accordance with an article of "Die Welt". They write thet 56% of the adult Germans use the wrong technique of circular movements. This technique would push bacteria and other stuff under the gum or rather between gum and teeth. The technique is appropriate for small children, since it is easier to learn, but otherwise the technique is outdated.
Interestingly the article also claims that teeth should be brushed in the morning after the breakfast, while you claiming they should be brushed before..

In general I tend to believe the information I grew up with, since a "British smile" is infamous for missing teeth in my country. That might have its origin in the popularity of Rugby, but nowadays probably in the eagerness of British dentists to rip out teeth, as I read before in another comment. I grew up in Germany and lived there for more than 30 years and they just ripped out my wisdom teeth. Being in England since 3 years now and I already lost one normal teeth to a dentist.

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Leofric said on 16 April 2012

I have been trying to report incorrect information on this dental health page but none of the links work.

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Parisa Safaei said on 24 September 2011

I agree with the American Dental Association that dental hygiene calls for two practices in addition to the above:

- regular dental cleanings by a professional
- a proper diet and limited snacking

I think that the former addresses the tartar that merely brushing teeth cannot always prevent or remove; and that the latter can mitigate frequent or serious acid erosion of teeth (tooth decay).

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User465407 said on 18 June 2010

Why Dentists have become privatised I will never understand... Oh yeah the money.

However, I at least thought dentists were decent enough people. For my last appointment I had two minor cavities that needed to be filled. Willing to pay the costs, I asked him to to fill both of them up. Instead he only filled one and left the other one 'to check at the next check-up'. I pressed on, pleading him to at least look at the other one or even to suggest dental tools to clean the cavity.

Just Floss

He said. Fine, I'll floss. But that only cleans in between teeth- not the actual cavity. Now I'm looking at the increasingly large hole that used to be that small cavity. Meaning more treatment needed and more money involved. Thanks a lot- for nothing.

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DanDoherty said on 18 January 2010

I have to agree, same thing My dentist told me I had to have a front bottom tooth removed because it wasnt straight!!!

I asked him was it a healthy tooth, he said well yes but, I stopped him there simple as that its a healthy tooth why remove it. money,money,money

I dont think that dentists even know the complexity of our teeth. I bet 50 years from now we will laugh at techniques used by modern dentists, just like we laugh about victorian mediacl practices today.

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Fern58 said on 04 January 2010

Despite attending an NHS dentist regularly since childhood and brushing my teeth twice/three times daily, I have lost teeth due to gum disease. I repeatedly asked my NHS dentist if there was any treatment I could have in addition to sacle and polish he carried out, but was told there wasn't and eventually I would lose all my teeth!! I may add that I was never offered antibiotic treatment as mentioned on this website. I trusted my dentist and never sought a second opinion - big mistake! Since having internet access, I have read of quite a few treatments available privately which could have saved my teeth. Now I look forward to the expense of alternatives, bad fitting NHS partial dentures or costly implants!!!!!

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Kiumars said on 20 September 2008

My dentist has been insisting on extracting my teeth for years because he makes more money (in short term) in extracting them than repairing them! I have managed to keep the teeth that were condemned to death by my dentist for over 10 years now! Don’t trust the doctors; they are businessmen in white overalls (like butchers!).

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