A lazy eye (amblyopia) is often diagnosed and treated by an orthoptist under the supervision of an ophthalmologist.

An orthoptist specialises in problems relating to vision development and eye movements.

An ophthalmologist is a doctor who specialises in the treatment of eye conditions.

The younger the child is when a lazy eye is diagnosed, the more successful treatment is likely to be. Treatment is unlikely to be successful if started after the age of eight.

The two main treatment options for a lazy eye are:

  • treating or correcting any underlying eye problems
  • encouraging the use of the affected eye so vision can develop properly

Treating underlying eye problems

Glasses

Vision problems such as short- or long-sightedness can be corrected using glasses. These usually need to be worn constantly and checked regularly.

Glasses may also help to straighten a squint, and in some cases can fix the lazy eye without the need for further treatment.

Your child may say they can see better without their glasses. This is because their eyes have become used to working hard to focus and they now find it difficult to let the glasses focus for them.

They'll need plenty of encouragement to wear their glasses continuously.

Contact lenses are an alternative to glasses, but they may only be suitable for older children.

Read more about treating short-sightedness and treating long-sightedness with corrective lenses.

Surgery

In children, most cataracts are removed to allow better development of vision in the affected eye.

Cataract surgery for children is carried out under general anaesthetic. The procedure usually takes about one to two hours.

Your child may be kept in hospital overnight to check their recovery process, and may have to use eye drops afterwards.

Read more about treating cataracts in children.

In some cases, surgery is used to improve the appearance of a squint. The operation will either strengthen or weaken the eye muscles of the lazy eye to change its position.

This means the lazy eye will appear to be better aligned with the good eye. The child's vision won't improve, but their eyes will appear straighter and it will help the eyes work better together.

Read more about treating squints.

A droopy eyelid (ptosis) can also be corrected using surgery.

Encouraging the use of the eye

A number of different treatment options can be used to encourage your child to use the affected eye. These are outlined below.

Using a patch

Using a patch is known as occlusion. It involves placing a patch with a sticky rim over the "good" eye so the lazy eye is forced to work. It can be very effective in improving the sight in the lazy eye.

The length of time the child will need to wear the patch will depend on how old they are, how serious the problem is, and how much they co-operate with wearing the patch.

The orthoptist and ophthalmologist will determine how often follow-up checks are needed.

Patches are most effective before a child reaches five years of age. Most children will need to wear the patch for a few hours a day for several weeks.

While the patch is on, the child should do close-up activities, such as colouring, reading or schoolwork. Patches can be worn with glasses.

Using a patch to treat a lazy eye can be a time-consuming process, and can sometimes be an unpleasant experience for the child.

It's important to explain the reasons for using a patch, and the importance of sticking with the treatment, to your child so that they're motivated to do it.

Eye drops

Atropine eye drops can be used to blur the vision in the good eye. They expand (dilate) the pupil of the good eye and blur near vision, which encourages the use of the lazy eye.

Side effects that can occur after using eye drops include:

  • eye irritation
  • reddening (flushing) of the skin
  • headaches 

However, these side effects are usually infrequent and rarely outweigh the benefits of using eye drops. 

Eye drops can be as effective as using a patch, and often the choice of treatment is a matter of preference. Children who don't like having drops in their eyes can wear a patch, and vice versa.

Lack of compliance

In some cases, a lazy eye doesn't improve despite proper treatment being received.

However, sometimes poor results are down to a lack of compliance from either the parent or carer, or the child.

It's very important that a suitable treatment is found that can be stuck to. If you're having trouble with one kind of treatment, you should discuss an alternative with your orthoptist.

If surgery is recommended, more than one operation may be required to improve the appearance of a squint, and glasses may still need to be worn after surgery.

A patch may also need to be worn, or eye drops used, if the lazy eye returns.

Page last reviewed: 16/06/2016

Next review due: 31/05/2019