Cerebral palsy 

Introduction 

Cerebral palsy

About one in 400 children born alive has cerebral palsy. An expert explains the causes, symptoms and treatment

Media last reviewed: 30/04/2013

Next review due: 30/04/2015

Carers: how to get practical support

Advice for carers with home care, care homes, equipment and more to help you with caring

Cerebral palsy is the general term for a number of neurological conditions that affect movement and co-ordination.

Neurological conditions are caused by problems in the brain and nervous system.

Specifically, cerebral palsy is caused by a problem in the parts of the brain responsible for controlling muscles. The condition can occur if the brain develops abnormally or is damaged before, during or shortly after birth.

Causes of cerebral palsy include:

  • an infection caught by the mother during pregnancy
  • a difficult or premature birth
  • bleeding in the baby’s brain
  • changes (mutations) in the genes that affect the brain's development

Read more about the causes of cerebral palsy.

It is estimated that 1 in 400 people in the UK is affected by cerebral palsy.

Symptoms of cerebral palsy

The symptoms of cerebral palsy normally become apparent during the first three years of a child's life.

The main symptoms are:

  • muscle stiffness or floppiness
  • muscle weakness
  • random and uncontrolled body movements
  • balance and co-ordination problems

These symptoms can affect different areas of the body and vary in severity from person to person. Some people will only have minor problems, whereas others will be severely disabled.

Many people with cerebral palsy also have a number of associated problems, including repeated seizures or fits, drooling problems and swallowing difficulties. Some people with the condition may have communication and learning difficulties, although intelligence is often unaffected.

Read more about the symptoms of cerebral palsy.

When to seek medical advice

A child with cerebral palsy may be slower in achieving important developmental goals, such as learning to crawl, walk or speak.

You should see your GP if you are concerned about your child's development. If necessary, they can refer you to a paediatrician (a doctor who specialises in the treatment of children), who can help identify any problems.

Read more about diagnosing cerebral palsy.

How cerebral palsy is treated

There is no cure for cerebral palsy. However, there are numerous treatments available, which can treat many of its symptoms and help people with the condition to be as independent as possible.

These treatments include physiotherapy, occupational therapy and medication to relieve muscle stiffness and spasms. In some cases, surgery may also be needed.

Read more about treating cerebral palsy.

Outlook

Cerebral palsy is not a progressive condition. This means the original problem in the brain doesn't get worse with age, and life expectancy is usually unaffected.

However, the physical and emotional strain of living with a long-term condition such as cerebral palsy can put a great deal of stress on the body, which can cause further problems in later life.

Read more about the complications of cerebral palsy.

Page last reviewed: 27/03/2014

Next review due: 27/03/2016

Ratings

How helpful is this page?

Average rating

Based on 345 ratings

All ratings

Add your rating

Comments

The 1 comments posted are personal views. Any information they give has not been checked and may not be accurate.

tallis said on 25 September 2012

This is an interesting article about cerebral palsy, but I'm puzzled that it has been written with the assumption that the reader is an adult with a child who has the condition.

I am an adult without any children, but who knows another adult who has cerebral palsy. That's why I visited here to learn more about the condition. I think the article should be rewritten to take account of the fact that it is not just children that have cerebral palsy, and it is not just parents of those children who desire information about the condition.

Other than that, it is a good article.

Report this content as offensive or unsuitable

Special needs in children

If your child has a health condition or disability, they may need specialised healthcare and help at school

Life with a disability

An increasing proportion of the UK's population is learning to live with the particular challenges that disability brings