Asthma: an animation

Asthma is a chronic condition affecting the lungs which can be managed but not cured. This animation explains in detail what happens when someone has asthma.

Media last reviewed: 22/11/2013

Next review due: 02/11/2015

All about asthma

According to Asthma UK, one in five homes has someone living with asthma

Asthma is a common long-term condition that can cause coughing, wheezing, chest tightness and breathlessness.

The severity of these symptoms varies from person to person. Asthma can be controlled well in most people most of the time, although some people may have more persistent problems.

Occasionally, asthma symptoms can get gradually or suddenly worse. This is known as an "asthma attack", although doctors sometimes use the term "exacerbation".

Severe attacks may require hospital treatment and can be life threatening, although this is unusual.

Speak to your GP if you think you or your child may have asthma. You should also talk to your doctor or asthma nurse if you have been diagnosed with asthma and you are finding it difficult to control your symptoms.

Read more about the symptoms of asthma and diagnosing asthma.

What causes asthma?

Asthma is caused by inflammation of the small tubes, called bronchi, which carry air in and out of the lungs. If you have asthma, the bronchi will be inflamed and more sensitive than normal.

When you come into contact with something that irritates your lungs  known as a trigger  your airways become narrow, the muscles around them tighten, and there is an increase in the production of sticky mucus (phlegm).

Common asthma triggers include:

  • house dust mites
  • animal fur
  • pollen
  • cigarette smoke
  • exercise
  • viral infections

Asthma may also be triggered by substances (allergens or chemicals) inhaled while at work. Speak to your GP if you think your symptoms are worse at work and get better on holiday.

The reason why some people develop asthma is not fully understood, although it is known that you are more likely to develop it if you have a family history of the condition.

Asthma can develop at any age, including in young children and elderly people.

Read more about the causes of asthma.  

Who is affected?

In the UK, around 5.4 million people are currently receiving treatment for asthma.

That's the equivalent of 1 in every 12 adults and 1 in every 11 children. Asthma in adults is more common in women than men.

How asthma is treated

While there is no cure for asthma, there are a number of treatments that can help control the condition.

Treatment is based on two important goals, which are:

  • relieving symptoms 
  • preventing future symptoms and attacks

For most people, this will involve the occasional  or, more commonly, daily  use of medications, usually taken using an inhaler. However, identifying and avoiding possible triggers is also important.

You should have a personal asthma action plan agreed with your doctor or nurse that includes information about the medicines you need to take, how to recognise when your symptoms are getting worse, and what steps to take when they do so.

Read more about treating asthma and living with asthma.


For many people, asthma is a long-term condition particularly if it first develops in adulthood.

Asthma symptoms are usually controllable and reversible with treatment, although some people with long-lasting asthma may develop permanent narrowing of their airways and more persistent problems.  

For children diagnosed with asthma, the condition may disappear or improve during the teenage years, although it can return later in life. Moderate or severe childhood asthma is more likely to persist or return later on.

Page last reviewed: 31/07/2014

Next review due: 31/07/2016


How helpful is this page?

Average rating

Based on 920 ratings

All ratings

Add your rating


The 12 comments posted are personal views. Any information they give has not been checked and may not be accurate.

Brenda70 said on 30 August 2014

I moved to rural Dorset four years ago, the c road we live in , had increasing problems with HGV s, after 6 months i was diagnosed with asthma, although i got treatment , i still found breathing difficult until march 2014, when we had a landslide, because of wet weather and HGV S, the road was closed because of the danger, since then there is a marked improvement in my Asthma. This proves that its the pollution from HGV s , that is causing my illness, the problem is , when the road is made safe soon, Dorset Council will open the road again, with increased HGVs using it. I dont know what to do.

Report this content as offensive or unsuitable

frank adey said on 12 December 2013

I also sent this to the foundation.
Well fit until the age of 60. developed asthma, and had several bad bouts before full diag. Now stable taking the brown inhaler and the blue one. Now at the start of using the inhalers for many months and getting cotton mouth (dry throat and still not getting coughing and breathing under control, I eventually saw a travelling nurse specialist (maybe from your foundation, not sure) who put me on a computer to see how much of the steroids I was getting in my lungs. Th my horror...none...Now this is my main point...that so many people (and you see this on tv in films) take a quick violent puff on the inhaler...this does no good at all as it stays in your throat. You have to breathy out, press the button and very slowly breath in as long as you can to let the steroids go into the lungs. Now I am sure you foundation knows this...But how many asthma patients realise that they may not be getting the right stuff to the right place. As I said I am now (thanks to that nurse) very I write this so that it may help. Also the aero extenstion chamber is so much better than just using the inhaler on it's own.
Also the blue inhaler should not be neede if the brown one is working
Thank you

Report this content as offensive or unsuitable

borgy said on 28 July 2013

I understand from the USA Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics a leading international authority on Asthma that the chemicals quantary ammonium compounds, also used by prominent disinfectant brand names in the UK, consider these chemicals to be asthmagens, and could cause asthma to develop in otherwise healthy people.
Therefore be warned when buying wipes, as it makes sense to avaoid these chemicals, especially for children.

Report this content as offensive or unsuitable

carobriz said on 04 July 2012

can I have more links related with asthma please?

Report this content as offensive or unsuitable

usnavdoc1 said on 05 June 2012

Evidence is ra[idly accumulating that a major cause of the increase in childhood asthma and lung damage is diesel fumes/particles, even though filters are used.
Diesel output is more dangerous than petrol because of the less-than-5 micron sized particles - they can be taken up into the cells.
It is getting more and more difficult to purchase a petrol-engined car, and this is very worrying.
There is too much big business behind this for much real note to be taken, unfortunately..

Report this content as offensive or unsuitable

ellenmlp247 said on 05 March 2012

Just a thought - I have so many old plastic containers from previously used inhalers, why can't patients just be given the canister refills and save on the plastic containers which have to be thrown away after use. This would surely save quite a deal of money, resources and our planet..

Report this content as offensive or unsuitable

dotcom said on 17 February 2012

I have always suffered from dust, smoke and had reaction to paint, perfume and aerosols, but I was living abroad and so it was not diagnosed as asthma. However, 20 years ago, I was then in my forties, they discovered that I suffered asthma. I know that I cannot have a cat or cat hairs, I avoid any smoke, have to avoid any painting areas, need to vacuum daily as the house we rent is carpetted. But to be able to breathe is worth the trouble. I do yoga and swimming as I find it helps my breathing and somehow the moisture makes it better. Like August, I do like gardening so can suffer with that as well, we also live rurally and hayfever with streaming nose and wheezing becomes a problem. Hey ho such is life!

Report this content as offensive or unsuitable

august said on 24 February 2011

My asthma triggers (I am a 64 year old female) are furry pets, dust mites and any spray canisters. I now live in the country and do not have much traffic nearby which also helps as diesel fumes set me off. Tobacco smoke is also a trigger. I have to stay indoors when the farmers are spraying crops. This triggers a 4 day painful attack if I do not. If I am stressed I also start wheezing. The asthma came on when I was 61, prior to this I was very sporty, but now find gardening difficult. My life is now at a walking pace.

Report this content as offensive or unsuitable

lizw80 said on 22 August 2010

hi i have asthma as well i have found a book that is really good for understanding alergies it was called alergies from waterstones

Report this content as offensive or unsuitable

steely said on 20 August 2010

I am 51 years old and had Asthma from youth, my doctor suggested to get me involved in sport to strengthen my cardiovascular system, which I did but had to take a ventolin inhaler for years pre exercise.
Five years ago I decided to gut my house and renew everything inside and replace with new. We replaced all downstairs carpets with solid floors and had a leather suite instead of cloth. Since that day to this
I have not suffered Asthma of any kind and do not use Asthma medication either. I can only put it down to emptying my house of dust mite and the area I most live in (downstairs) is easily cleaned as it is all hard surfaces now and less prone to holding mite.
I hope this helps somebody ?

Report this content as offensive or unsuitable

Donna Lou said on 08 July 2010

I've not long since found out i have triggers asthma. Does anyone have any tips for me Please.

Report this content as offensive or unsuitable

redmistpete said on 18 November 2009

I developed asthma shortly after working with mutagens. The military told me it was just a cat allergy.

Report this content as offensive or unsuitable


someone over
60 feeling under
the weather?

Find out how your local pharmacy can help.

Learn more about how a pharmacist can help you

Asthma and pregnancy

Find out how pregnancy affects asthma and how to manage your asthma when you're pregnant

Find and choose services