Many of the symptoms of asthma are similar to those of other conditions, so it's vital that you see your GP to get the right diagnosis.
Asthma often develops in childhood, although some people get asthma for the first time as adults. Even then, there are often signs of asthma in earlier life that may not have been diagnosed – typically, people report a history of "colds that always went to my chest".
Asthma symptoms can be similar to symptoms for other lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or even heart disease. Getting proper medical advice is important.
If it looks likely that you have asthma, your doctor will ask you specific questions to find out if your work is causing it.
Asthma can be made worse by certain occupations – for example, if you work with paint sprays, sterilising chemicals or in a dusty environment.
The symptoms of asthma
You may have shortness of breath, a cough or wheeze that comes and goes. It could be worse in the morning when you wake up, and at night. Factors such as exercise, the cold, dust, pets or your emotions may also trigger your asthma symptoms.
According to GP Dr Kevin Gruffydd-Jones, asthma is different from other conditions because it's episodic, which means it comes and goes. People with asthma can be generally well otherwise.
Dr Gruffydd-Jones says: "People with asthma don't have weight loss or anything like that. In older people, the symptoms may mean that they have COPD or other respiratory illness, or possibly heart problems.
"We also check if there's a strong family history of asthma, or whether the patient has atopic eczema or hay fever. This could make a diagnosis of asthma more likely."
How is asthma diagnosed?
Doctors diagnose asthma mainly by asking you questions about your health, and possibly doing certain tests. As a general guide:
- you'll be asked if there's a family history of asthma or allergies
- you'll be asked if there are any other signs of chest disease or heart disease
- you'll have a lung function test using a peak flow meter (a device that measures how hard and quickly you blow air out of your lungs to see how well they're working)
- you may be given a drug to open your airways to measure your lung capacity
Read more about how asthma is diagnosed.
Diagnosing young children with asthma
There isn't a single test your child can take to tell if they have asthma. To help make a diagnosis, your doctor or nurse will check whether your child has all the symptoms of childhood asthma, and may ask questions such as:
- Are their symptoms worse at night or in the morning?
- Do they come and go?
- Do they appear more with certain triggers?
- Is there a strong family history of allergy?
You may be asked to keep a record of your child's symptoms, along with what seems to make them better or worse.
According to Dr Gruffydd-Jones, if there's a good chance your child has asthma based on the questions above, your GP may give them a trial treatment to see if they get better. If they do, your GP will continue the treatment.
The charity Asthma UK has more information, advice and support for children with asthma.