The flu jab

Flu vaccination by injection, commonly known as the "flu jab" is available every year on the NHS to protect adults (and some children) at risk of flu and its complications.

Flu can be unpleasant, but if you are otherwise healthy it will usually clear up on its own within a week.

However, flu can be more severe in certain people, such as:

  • anyone aged 65 and over
  • pregnant women
  • children and adults with an underlying health condition (particularly long-term heart or respiratory disease)
  • children and adults with weakened immune systems

Anyone in these risk groups is more likely to develop potentially serious complications of flu, such as pneumonia (a lung infection), so it's recommended that they have a flu vaccine every year to protect them. 

The flu vaccine is given free on the NHS as an annual injection to:

  • adults over the age of 18 at risk of flu (including everyone aged 65 and over)
  • children aged six months to two years at risk of flu

Find out more about who should have the flu jab.

Flu nasal spray vaccination

The flu vaccine is routinely given on the NHS as an annual nasal spray to:

  • healthy children aged two, three and four years old plus children in school years one and two. 
  • children aged two to 17 years at a particular risk of flu

Read more about the flu nasal spray for children.

Where to get the flu jab

You can have your NHS flu jab at:

  • Your GP surgery
  • A local pharmacy offering the service

Some community pharmacies now offer flu vaccination to adults (but not children) at risk of flu including pregnant women, people aged 65 and over, people with long-term health conditions and carers.

If you have your flu jab at a pharmacy, you don't have to inform your GP – it is up to the pharmacist to do that.

How effective is the flu jab?

Flu vaccine is the best protection we have against an unpredictable virus that can cause unpleasant illness in children and severe illness and death among at-risk groups, including older people, pregnant women and those with an underlying medical health condition.

Studies have shown that the flu jab does work and will help prevent you getting the flu. It won't stop all flu viruses and the level of protection may vary between people, so it's not a 100% guarantee that you'll be flu-free, but if you do get flu after vaccination it's likely to be milder and shorter-lived than it would otherwise have been.

There is also evidence to suggest that the flu jab can reduce your risk of having a stroke.

Over time, protection from the injected flu vaccine gradually decreases and flu strains often change. So new flu vaccines are produced each year which is why people advised to have the flu jab need it every year too.

Read more about how the flu jab works.

Flu jab side effects

Serious side effects of the injected flu vaccine are very rare. You may have a slight temperature and aching muscles for a couple of days after having the jab, and your arm may be a bit sore where you were injected.

Read more about the side effects of the flu jab.

When to have a flu jab

The best time to have a flu vaccine is in the autumn, from the beginning of October to early November, but don't worry if you've missed it, you can have the vaccine later in winter if there are stocks left. Ask your GP or pharmacist.

The flu jab for 2015/16

Each year, the viruses that are most likely to cause flu are identified in advance and vaccines are made to match them as closely as possible. The vaccines are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).

The WHO has announced that the 2015/16 flu vaccine will protect against three types of flu virus:

  • A/H1N1 – the strain of flu that caused the swine flu pandemic in 2009
  • A/H3N2 – a strain of flu that can infect birds and mammals and was active in 2011
  • B/Phuket/3073/2013

The nasal spray flu vaccine offers protection against four strains of virus, as it includes a virus strain that was active in 2008. 

Is there anyone who shouldn't have the flu jab?

Most adults can have the injected flu vaccine, but you should avoid it if you have had a serious allergic reaction to a flu jab in the past.

Read more about who shouldn't have the flu vaccine.

You can find out more by reading the answers to the most common questions that people have about the flu vaccine.

The Tokkels: flu jabs

Flu is a highly infectious illness caused by the flu virus. It spreads rapidly through small droplets coughed or sneezed into the air by an infected person. Some people are at greater risk of developing serious complications of flu, such as bronchitis and pneumonia. The flu vaccination is offered to people in at-risk groups.

Media last reviewed: 14/07/2015

Next review due: 14/07/2017

Page last reviewed: 12/04/2014

Next review due: 12/04/2016


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The 24 comments posted are personal views. Any information they give has not been checked and may not be accurate.

DrJojo said on 07 November 2015

I took my 3yr old in to be immunised a couple of weeks ago, however both her and my 18 month old got ill with the flu for 5 days after, with temperatures spiking at 39.8. They both had no appetite, and lost a lot of weight.
Though thankfully Calpol helped, and they have both recovered fully now, there is no way I'm doing the same next year.

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Jane1234 said on 30 August 2015

I was paralysed after receiving the flu vaccine in 2009. I have suffered autoimmune disease ever since. The same year a number of children developed narcolepsy as a result of the flu vaccine - an autoimmune disease. The government admitted this was caused by flu vaccine and they received compensation. I will spend the rest of my life regretting having received that vaccine. I get angry when I go to my doctors surgery and only see posters telling you to "keep your family safe, get them vaccinated". People should be aware of the risks they are taking.

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bonnygoose said on 10 April 2015

Can anyone let us know if they have had the same problems as my wife and myself after having the flu jab.
We both had the flu jab in early December and have not felt well since. We have had one cold after the other and have both had chest infections, as I am typing this I am sneezing and have a sore throat and my wife is coughing and feeling unwell again. It is now April and we are both fed up with it.
It seems we have loads of viruses coming out one after the other.
Other friends who have had the flu jab report the same symptoms.
That is it we are not having it next year. I would rather take my chances with the flu than go through this again.

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the equaliser said on 09 March 2015

Yes.Had the flu jab.
Yes. Had the flu twice already this year.
Aparantly the jab didnt work.
The Japanese may look strange waring those white masks but perhaps they got it right.

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Kathryn at NHS Choices said on 09 January 2015

Dear rosiezgirl,

National recommendations regarding the flu vaccination of people with immunosuppression are clearly laid out in the Green Book. It states that flu vaccination is recommended in anyone with immunosuppression as a result of illness or treatment.

As it's difficult to define how serious immunosuppression should be before a patient is considered at risk from flu, the decision to recommend the flu jab has to be made on an individual basis by the patient’s doctor.

I'd advise that you go back to your wife's GP and ask them to explain on what basis they've made the decision that the flu vaccine is not appropriate in her case.

Hope that helps,

Kathryn Bingham, NHS Choices editor

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rosiezgirl said on 09 December 2014

My wife, who has Lupus, and has been denied the jab through our Drs. Lupus and derivatives, show symptoms like the immune system going into overdrive and attacking healthy cells in the body. My wife takes Hydroxychloroquine {an anti malarial drug} but one of the side effects is that it suppresses the immune system. Doesn’t the NHS know that already? The criteria for the flu jab...and I quote from the NHS’s own for ‘children and adults with weakened immune systems….Anyone in these risk groups is more likely to develop potentially serious complications of flu, such as pneumonia (a lung infection), so it's recommended that they have a flu vaccine every year to protect them.’ My wife is susceptible to viruses and bacterial infections because of her illness and now the medication. I really cannot understand the NHS point of view at all. Is my wife meant to stop her medication throughout the winter, just in case her immune system doesn’t fight flu or likewise infections? It’s nonsensical. Some clarity on this issue would be helpful!

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User874469 said on 03 December 2014

There seems to be a flu epidemic despite the flu jab! My neighbours and I had the jab but at least half of us have had the flu this year. Does this year's jab seem less effective than previous years? It does in my experience as I was always flu-free before with it.

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CatherineRR said on 19 November 2014

I want to vaccinate my son, who is 12, but I was told at the GP that he is not eligible, and I should go to the pharmacy. But I was refused there as well, because he is a kid. Is there any way I can get a flu jab for him?

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NickyNHS said on 19 November 2014

What if the employer (care home) is not interested in spending any money that is not required by law?
There is always a hassle with the payroll. Any request takes ages to approve. There is not enough staffing.
As a carer, I was sent back from the NHS. The care home does not care, so why should I? On minimum wage, 12h shifts of which only 11h are paid, 5 days a week.No bus service on Saturday, Sundays and Christmas.
When I will fall sick, will stay home.
Deal with it.

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Jonny27 said on 14 November 2014

Has anyone experienced acid reflux after the flu jab. I've had heartburn and back pain since the jab. It could just be a coincidence.

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Kathryn at NHS Choices said on 11 November 2014

Dear Barzey,

The flu vaccine is manufactured over the summer every year. It's a complex process which means the date that the vaccine becomes available varies from year to year.

Usually, the vaccine arrives at GP surgeries anytime from mid-September to early October. It is, of course, for individual GP practices to decide when they start vaccinating, and you may want to consider asking your practice about this.

The vaccine manufacturers supply the same flu vaccine to both the NHS and pharmacists, supermarkets etc. There should not be a significant difference between the date that GPs and supermarkets receive the vaccine. Be aware that some supermarkets advertise their intention to offer flu vaccinations ahead of actual deliveries of vaccine.

In recent years the flu virus has not started circulating in the UK until at least late November, and sometimes not until the New Year. It is unlikely, therefore, that anyone vaccinated in the middle of October will be at significant risk of contracting flu before the vaccine takes effect, Having said that, official advice remains that you should get your flu jab as soon as it is available, as it makes sense to get yourself protected at the earliest opportunity.

Flu is not yet circulating widely this year, so there is still time to get the jab if you have not already done so.

I hope this information is helpful.

Kathryn Bingham, Editor, NHS Choices

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Tez01 said on 30 October 2014

Are we going to be offered the flu jab this year.

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Barzey said on 10 October 2014

I wonder why it is that our own Doctors practices do not start the Flu Jabs until 1st r 2nd week in October each year when the Flu season starts approx. 5-6 weeks before that?

By which time the Flu infections are already well under way. Surely it would be better to have them much earlier in order to keep the infection risk well down in the first place.

After all Tesco Stores are already supplying them in September or is there a difference in the Vaccines at all?

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Aizkraukle said on 07 October 2014

On the NHS Choices pages for Flu Vaccines for Children it says "Not only is it needle-free (a big advantage for children), the nasal spray works even better than the injected flu vaccine with fewer side effects"

Why are adults still injected? How many adults do not get a jab because of their fear of needles? Can adults opt for a nasal spray instead ?

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Tinasarena said on 06 October 2014

Hi my son is 15 suffers from asthma and has always had the flu jab every year. This year my doctors are saying they are not giving the jab to children as they haven't had enough vaccine . I asked again today and they are saying they not sure if they are having any vaccine in for children. Just a little concerned if my son does not have it this year. Thanks

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Kathryn at NHS Choices said on 06 January 2014

Dear ellie590,

The flu virus changes with time so it's important you keep having the flu vaccine each year. It won't make things worse. There's no evidence that having the jab in any way weakens your protection in subsequent years.

The flu jab does not provide complete protection so you may still be unlucky enough to get flu, but most likely in a milder form than you would have had without the vaccine.

Bear in mind, too, that many illnesses that are called “flu” are in fact due to other infections and cannot be prevented, so it may be that in some years you have had an illness like flu but due to a different infection.

Hope that helps,
Kathryn, NHS Choices editor

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ellie590 said on 22 December 2013

I have the flu jab every year. I have no side effects from the jab, but I also get flu every year, often badly and always leaving me with a bad cough. Is there any point in me keep having the jab and could it actually make things worse? I am 63 years old.

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fracrecep said on 15 December 2013

I had the flu jab three weeks ago and my body has not stopped aching, From the bottom of my back right down the backs of my legs, I struggle to move freely, I didn't have this before my flu jab, Now I have just read that this is happening to someone else, I had,nt heard of this being a side effect,
This is the first time I have had a flu jab,

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Kevish24 said on 03 December 2013

I regret not having looked at my injection, Don't be shy to ask or see what is going inside you. The lable on it, the size & type of immunisation it is etc.. We tend not to look at it because we fear the needle.

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fluent said on 23 October 2013

I had flu jab on Saturday. Almost immediately the underside of my tongue swelled up and there were lumps at the bottom of my mouth and mouth ulcers developed.
Since then I have had fever, aching limbs, bad cough and cold, these symptoms continue and it is now Wednesday.

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Kathryn at NHS Choices said on 11 October 2013

Dear Spyker,

It is perfectly ok to have the flu jab while taking antibiotics. I've added to our articles to make this clear.

Kathryn Bingham (NHS Choices editor)

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Spyker said on 10 October 2013

It is very unfortunate indeed that no mention is made in public leaflets or on the health or GP websites that patients who are currently taking antibiotics cannot have the flu vaccination until at least a week after they have their last tablet. I just wasted a solid hour waiting at my GP practice for the reasons stated above. It's high time the NHS is a bit more transparent with its patients and give out factual information in the media as to who can have the flu vaccination and who can't.

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Tommy57 said on 30 September 2013

I have had long term asthma which is controlled by a salbutomol inhaler, I have had the flu jab for years and have to attend an asthma clinic for a yearly check up. When I contacted my local practice for my seasonal jab I was informed that it was only people with asthma which is controlled by steroids who are eligible for the flu vaccination. This is not made clear in the public leaflets or information on the web, seemingly a committee are pruning the people who get the injection and information is made available to GPs via the green book? Very strange.

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crabbsnest43 said on 21 September 2013

again this year it is the same story when i tried to book our flu jab "to late i was told that is the next day to the day one could phone to book ,told all appointments gone !!!! now i started having flu jabs when in my 50 because i had sarcodoisis so was having the jab well before retiring , when we first moved to Snettisham March the 1st 2001 it was a system of turning up and it was done alphabetically very smooth (it tokk longer to get through the raffle ticket buying ) on exit so i am not a happy bunny at all !! (nor is my husband ) he has chest trouble also so there we are perhaps it might be a good idea to camp outside the surgery for the next release dates !!!

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The flu vaccination

If you have a long-term health condition, even one which is well managed, are pregnant, or aged 65 and over, catching flu could make you seriously ill and make complications like pneumonia more likely. Watch this Public Health England campaign video to find out the best way to protect yourself against flu.

Media last reviewed: 13/10/2014

Next review due: 13/10/2016

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