Treatment for heel pain usually involves using a combination of techniques, such as stretches and painkillers, to relieve pain and speed up recovery.
Most cases of heel pain get better within 12 months. Surgery may be recommended as a last resort if your symptoms don't improve after 12 months. Only one in 20 people with heel pain will need surgery.
Whenever possible, rest the affected foot by avoiding walking long distances and standing for long periods. However, you should regularly stretch your feet and calves using exercises such as those described below.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, can be used to help relieve pain.
Some people also find applying an ice pack to the affected heel for five to 10 minutes can help relieve pain and inflammation. However, do not apply an ice pack directly to your skin. Instead, you should wrap it in a towel. If you do not have an ice pack, you can use a packet of frozen vegetables.
Exercises designed to stretch both your calf muscles and your plantar fascia (the band of tissue that runs under the sole of your foot) should help relieve pain and improve flexibility in the affected foot.
A number of stretching exercises are described below. It is usually recommended you do the exercises on both legs, even if only one of your heels is affected by pain. This will improve your balance and stability, as well as helping to relieve heel pain.
Keep a long towel beside your bed. Before you get out of bed in the morning, loop the towel around your foot and use it to pull your toes towards your body while keeping your knee straight. Repeat three times on each foot.
Place both hands on a wall at shoulder height with one of your feet in front of the other. The front foot should be about 30cm (12 inches) away from the wall.
With your front knee bent and your back leg straight, lean towards the wall until you feel a tightening in the calf muscles of your back leg. Then relax.
Repeat this exercise 10 times before switching legs and repeating the cycle. You should practise wall stretches twice a day.
Stand on a step of your stairs facing upstairs, using your banister for support. Your feet should be slightly apart with your heels hanging off the back of the step.
Lower your heels until you feel a tightening in your calves. Hold this position for about 40 seconds before raising your heels back to the starting position. Repeat this procedure six times, at least twice a day.
Sit on a chair with your knees bent at right angles. Turn your feet sideways so your heels are touching and your toes are pointing in opposite directions. Lift the toes of the affected foot upwards while keeping the heel firmly on the floor.
You should feel your calf muscles and Achilles tendon (the band of tissue that connects your heel bone to your calf muscle) tighten. Hold this position for several seconds and then relax. Repeat this procedure 10 times, five to six times a day.
While seated, roll the arch of your foot (the curved bottom part of the foot between your toes and heel) over a round object, such as a rolling pin, tennis ball or drink can. Some people find that using a chilled can from their fridge has the added benefit of helping to relieve pain.
Move your foot and ankle in all directions over the object for several minutes. Repeat the exercise twice a day.
Depending on your usual choice of footwear, your GP or podiatrist may advise you to change your footwear.
You should avoid wearing flat-soled shoes because they will not provide your heel with support and could make your heel pain worse.
Ideally, you should wear shoes that cushion your heels and provide a good level of support to the arches of your feet.
For women, wearing high heels and for men, wearing heeled boots or brogues can provide short- to medium-term pain relief, as they help reduce pressure on the heels.
However, these types of shoes may not be suitable in the long-term because they can lead to further episodes of heel pain. Your GP or podiatrist will be able to advise further about footwear.
Orthoses are insoles that fit inside your shoe to support your foot and help your heel recover. You can buy orthoses off-the-shelf from sports shops and larger pharmacies, or your podiatrist should be able to recommend a supplier.
If your pain does not respond to treatment and keeps recurring, or if you have an abnormal foot shape or structure, custom-made orthoses are available. They are specifically made to fit the shape of your feet.
However, there is currently no evidence to suggest that custom-made orthoses are more effective than those bought off-the-shelf.
Strapping and splinting
An alternative to using orthoses is to have your heel strapped with sports strapping (zinc oxide) tape. The strapping helps relieve pressure on your heel. Your GP or podiatrist should be able to teach you how to apply the tape yourself.
In some cases, night splints can also be useful. Most people sleep with their toes pointing down, which means tissue inside the heel is squeezed together.
Night splints, which look like boots, are designed to keep your toes and feet pointing up while you are asleep. This will stretch both your Achilles tendon and your plantar fascia, which should help speed up your recovery time.
Night splints are usually only available from specialist shops and online retailers. Again, your podiatrist should be able to recommend a supplier.
If treatment hasn't helped relieve your painful symptoms, your GP may recommend corticosteroid injections.
Corticosteroids are a type of medication that have a powerful anti-inflammatory effect. They have to be used sparingly because overuse can cause serious side effects, such as weight gain and high blood pressure (hypertension).
As a result, it is usually recommended that no more than three corticosteroid injections are given within a year in any part of the body.
Before having a corticosteroid injection, a local anaesthetic (painkilling medication) may be used to numb your foot so you do not feel any pain.
If treatment hasn't worked and you still have painful symptoms after a year, your GP may refer you to either:
- an orthopaedic surgeon – a surgeon who specialises in surgery that involves bones, muscles and joints
- a podiatric surgeon – a podiatrist who specialises in foot surgery
Surgery is sometimes recommended for professional athletes and other sportspeople whose heel pain is adversely affecting their career.
Plantar release surgery
Plantar release surgery is the most widely used type of surgery for heel pain. The surgeon will cut the fascia to release it from your heel bone and reduce the tension in your plantar fascia. This in turn should reduce any inflammation and relieve your painful symptoms.
Surgery can be performed either as:
- open surgery – where the section of the plantar fascia is released by making a cut into your heel
- endoscopic or minimal incision surgery – where a smaller incision is made and special instruments are inserted through the incision to gain access to the plantar fascia
Endoscopic or minimal incision surgery has a quicker recovery time, so you will be able to walk normally much sooner (almost immediately) compared with two to three weeks for open surgery.
A disadvantage of endoscopic surgery is that it requires both a specially trained surgical team and specialised equipment, so you may have to wait longer for treatment than if you were to choose open surgery.
Endoscopic surgery also carries a higher risk of damaging nearby nerves, which could result in symptoms such as numbness, tingling or some loss of movement in your foot.
As with all surgery, plantar release carries the risk of causing complications such as infection, nerve damage and a worsening of your symptoms after surgery (although this is rare).
You should discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both techniques with your surgical team.
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (EST)
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (EST) is a fairly new type of non-invasive treatment. Non-invasive means it does not involve making cuts into your body.
EST involves using a device to deliver high energy soundwaves into your heel. The soundwaves can sometimes cause pain, so a local anaesthetic may be used to numb your heel.
It is claimed that EST works in two ways. It is thought to:
- have a 'numbing' effect on the nerves that transmit pain signals to your brain
- help stimulate and speed up the healing process
However, these claims have not yet been definitely proven.
The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has issued guidance about the use of EST for treating plantar fasciitis.
NICE states there are no concerns over the safety of EST, but there are uncertainties about how effective the procedure is for treating heel pain.
Some studies have reported EST is more effective than surgery and other non-surgical treatments, while other studies found the procedure to be no better than a placebo (sham treatment).
For more information, you can read the NICE guidance about using EST for treating plantar fasciitis (PDF, 52.7kb).