Tremor (essential) - Treatment 

Treating essential tremor 

Getting help

If you are affected by essential tremor, you can call the National Tremor Foundation (NTF) for help and support. Their telephone number is 01708 386399. You can also visit the NTF website for further information and advice.

There is no cure for essential tremor. The aim of treatment is to reduce or remove the involuntary movements as much as possible.

Mild tremor

If your tremor is mild and does not stop you from carrying out normal activities, your condition may simply be monitored. You should avoid things that make your tremor worse, such as:

  • caffeine, found in coffee, tea and some fizzy drinks
  • not getting enough sleep
  • stress 

Moderate tremor

If your tremor is more severe, your doctor may prescribe medication. The most effective medicines are propranolol and primidone. Between half and three quarters of people find that these medicines reduce their tremor.


Propranolol is a beta-blocker usually used to treat heart disease and high blood pressure (hypertension). It reduces tremors for a few hours after each dose. The possible side effects of taking propranolol include:

  • feeling sick
  • dizziness
  • cold extremities
  • impotence 
  • worsening of pre-existing asthma or heart failure


Primidone is an anticonvulsant, also used to treat epilepsy. Possible side effects include low blood pressure, drowsiness and feeling sick.

Another anticonvulsant, called topiramate, may also sometimes be used. If these medicines do not work on their own, a combination of propranolol and an anticonvulsant may be recommended.


If combining the above medicines does not work, there is some evidence that sedatives such as clonazepam and alprazolam can help. These may improve your tremor because they reduce anxiety, which can often make the tremor worse. However, sedatives can cause drowsiness and there is a risk you may become dependent on them.

Botulinum toxin

In rare cases, if the medicines described above prove to be ineffective, botulinum toxin may be used to treat essential tremor. The botulinum toxin is injected directly into the trembling muscles to block nerve transmissions and relax the muscles.

Botulinum toxin type A is a powerful poison that is clinically safe when used in minute doses. It is sometimes used to treat dystonic tremor, which is a different type of tremor that causes involuntary muscle spasms and contractions (tightening).

Severe tremor

Sometimes the essential tremor may be so severe that it significantly interferes with normal activity and does not respond to medication. In these rare cases, surgery may be considered. There are two types of surgery:

  • deep brain stimulation
  • thalamotomy

These procedures are described below.

Deep brain stimulation

Deep brain stimulation involves placing one or more electrodes (small metallic needles) in an area of your brain called the thalamus. This is done under general anaesthetic so you are unconscious, though you are woken up during the procedure to make sure that the electrodes are in the correct place.

Thin wires run from the electrodes to a pulse generator (a device similar to a pacemaker), which is implanted under the skin of your chest. The generator produces an electric current that helps regulate your brainwaves and controls your tremor.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published guidelines on deep brain stimulation for tremor in 2006. NICE concluded that the treatment is effective in improving tremor, but that more information is needed regarding how successful it is in the long-term. Other research has found that deep brain stimulation can reduce tremor by around 90%.

Possible adverse effects of deep brain stimulation include:

  • infection of the surgical scar site
  • speech problems
  • tingling
  • bleeding in the brain
  • fluid in the brain
  • stroke, a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off
  • complications of general anaesthetic, such as nerve damage and numbness

Discuss these risks with your surgeon before deciding whether to have the procedure.

In the research that NICE looked at, side effects were relatively rare. More recent research has also concluded that deep brain stimulation is a relatively safe procedure. Certain side effects can be eliminated by adjusting the level of stimulation produced by the pulse generator.


A thalamotomy involves making a small hole in the thalamus, which is the same area of the brain targeted for deep brain stimulation. The procedure has been shown to be effective in improving tremor.

Deep brain stimulation is often preferred to thalamotomy because it usually causes fewer side effects and some side effects can be reversed by adjusting the stimulation parameters or abandoning stimulation altogether.

However, thalamotomy has some advantages over deep brain stimulation, such as avoiding the need for follow up appointments to check the pulse generator and replace batteries.

Side effects of a thalamotomy can include:

  • confusion and problems thinking
  • speech and balance problems
  • bleeding in the brain
  • infection
  • paralysis

Page last reviewed: 29/01/2013

Next review due: 29/01/2015


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The 3 comments posted are personal views. Any information they give has not been checked and may not be accurate.

User917047 said on 03 November 2014

Having read everything on the site about tremors, I am 100% confident that i suffer from this. As much as it can be irritating i would go one step further and say that its quite scary. My hand, generally only one will start shaking, for those who aren't aware of the symptom, imagine your elbow is in a fixed position, now put your hand out (like you're going to shake someones hand) and then hold it in that position. The shake, for me at least 1-2.5 inches of involuntary movement each way generally up and down. This will start from the palm/wrist but eventually start forcing the elbow to move. I excuse myself if i'm in company or just use my other hand to pin the other down. It can be so bad that i cannot physically hold a cup or glass of water because i would drop it/the contents would be out of the cup in seconds. One time i had a bottled drink and only 1/5 was left after it calmed down. Like the others I agree that theres little doctors can do about it, and it would have to manifest right in front of their eyes at that. I do agree an adult beverage helps a lot but i would say something like a beer is best. I'm allergic to beer so i have a brandy. This being said it doesn't work every time, neither does cutting out caffeine. Stress can be a factor and even if you think your chilled out, your body may not be. Sleep is the key, out of all the information on the sites sleep is key. I can give an exception to everything else but that. I have difficulty sleeping so sometimes i have to go two days with an hour of sleep at best. Every time without fail it is when your body is physically drained or soon going to be, stress can be draining too, any stimulants you have to off set this will only make the Tremors worse. Sometimes i have gone three days without a wink of sleep and have to have a few drinks to go to sleep, i can sleep for over 15 hours while in this state. After these crashes i have not experienced tremors for days or sometimes weeks.

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DavidF1966 said on 22 November 2013

As a fellow suffer of this irritating (for me) condition I can confirm that alcohol does alleviate the condition. As a student, my GP advised me to have 'a couple of gin and tonics' before going out. (Advising a student to up their alcohol intake is generally best avoided.) I took the advice in the spirit it was intended and have so far avoid alcoholism! A couple of pints generally takes the tremor away and the embarrassment too.
I'm a bit surprised alcohol was not mentioned as a short-term treatment.

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Lenoil said on 17 October 2012

Perhaps not the observation generally associated with an NHS site but my experience, in common with a lot of others, indicates alcohol as a relief mechanism. There is no doubt that an evening drink (or two) alleviates my symptoms and makes for a less embarrassing performance at the dinner table.
I hope this finding helps others.

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