The following vaccinations are available for travellers abroad.
Polio spreads through the respiratory system and contaminated food and water. Currently, the disease is circulating in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria, but it's also a risk in other regions of the world.
All children in the UK are routinely vaccinated against polio. You'll only need this jab if you've not been previously fully vaccinated or you're travelling to African, southeast Asian and eastern Mediterranean regions and haven't received a polio booster in the previous 10 years.
Vaccination against polio is given in a single 3-in-1 Td/polio (tetanus, diphtheria, polio) jab.
More on the polio jab for travel
Tetanus is caught through dirty cuts and scratches. As with polio, all children in the UK are routinely vaccinated against tetanus. The organism that causes tetanus is found in all countries of the world.
You'll only need this jab if you weren't fully vaccinated against tetanus as a child, or if you're travelling to areas outside Western Europe, North America and Australasia and you haven't had a booster dose in the past 10 years.
Vaccination against tetanus is given in a single 3-in-1 Td/polio (tetanus, diphtheria, polio) jab.
More on the tetanus jab for travel
Diphtheria is spread by droplet infection through close personal contact, and in high-risk areas by contact with cattle or dairy products. As with polio and tetanus, all children in the UK are routinely vaccinated against diphtheria.
You'll only need this jab if you'll be living or working with local people in countries where there's a risk.
Vaccination against diphtheria is given in a single 3-in-1 Td/polio (tetanus, diphtheria, polio) jab.
More on the diphtheria jab for travel
Typhoid is spread through contaminated food and water. It causes symptoms such as fever, headache, stomach pains, loss of appetite and nausea. In some cases, infected people have a rash of flat, rose-coloured spots.
Areas where typhoid occurs include some countries in Africa, Asia, the Indian subcontinent and South America.
Vaccination is recommended if you're travelling to a country where typhoid commonly occurs and your planned activities put you at higher risk. This includes travellers visiting friends and relatives, young children, long-term travellers and people exposed to poor sanitation conditions.
More about the typhoid jab
Cholera is spread through contaminated water and food, and is more common during floods and rainy seasons. Areas where cholera is common include Africa, the Indian subcontinent and Asia.
Vaccination is only recommended if you're travelling to a high-risk area and can't take effective precautions, for example, in areas of conflict, refugee camps or slums. If you're travelling to a remote area of a country where there's an ongoing outbreak, getting a vaccination may be recommended.
Cholera vaccine is given as a drink in two separate doses.
More about the cholera oral vaccine
Hepatitis A vaccination
Hepatitis A is spread through contaminated food and water, and causes liver inflammation and jaundice. Areas where hepatitis A commonly occurs include Africa, the Far East, and Central and South America.
Vaccination is recommended if you're travelling to countries in these areas with poor levels of sanitation. It's especially important to be vaccinated against hepatitis A if you have certain underlying illnesses or your sexual behaviour puts you at increased risk.
Vaccination against hepatitis A can be given as a single injection with an optional booster jab for longer lasting protection.
More about the hepatitis A vaccine
Hepatitis B vaccination
Hepatitis B is spread through infected blood, contaminated needles and sexual intercourse. The risk of hepatitis B varies, but infections are found throughout the world. The lowest risk is in northern Europe.
Vaccination is recommended if you're travelling in parts of the world where hepatitis B is common. It's especially important if you're at increased risk of hepatitis B, such as if you're an aid or healthcare worker, having sex, injecting drugs or playing contact sports. Anyone travelling for long periods or who is likely to need medical care is also at increased risk.
Hepatitis B vaccination generally involves a course of three injections.
A combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccination is also available for travellers.
More on the hepatitis B jab
Yellow fever vaccination
Yellow fever is a serious disease that's spread by bites from infected mosquitoes that feed during daylight. It occurs in certain countries of tropical Africa and South America.
Vaccination is advised if you're travelling to areas where there's a risk of yellow fever transmission. Some countries require proof of vaccination (certificate) against yellow fever before they let you enter the country.
Vaccination against yellow fever is a single injection that protects you for 10 years.
More on the yellow fever vaccine
Rabies is spread through bites or licks on broken skin from an infected animal. Without treatment it's almost always fatal. It occurs in many countries, including most parts of the African and Asian continents, and many parts of Central and South America.
Vaccination is advised if you're going to risk areas that will be far away from a reliable source of vaccine. You should also consider vaccination if you'll be taking part in high-risk activities, such as cycling and running, or if you're travelling to rabies risk areas for a long time.
Rabies vaccination usually involves a course of three injections.
More on the rabies jab
Tuberculosis (TB) vaccination
Tuberculosis (TB) is spread through infected droplets from coughs and sneezes.
BCG vaccination is given to some children in the UK who are at increased risk from tuberculosis.
BCG vaccination (which protects against tuberculosis) is also recommended for travellers under 16 years old who will be living or working with local people for three months or more and have not been previously vaccinated.
You should also consider vaccination against TB if you're under 35 and may be at high risk through your occupation abroad, for example if you're a healthcare worker.
More on the BCG jab
Japanese encephalitis vaccination
Japanese encephalitis is spread by bites from infected mosquitoes that feed from evening until dawn. It's present across huge areas of Asia.
The vaccine is recommended if you're planning an extended stay (at least a month, or sometimes less if the risk is high) in an affected country during the transmission season. This is especially true in rural areas, such as rice fields or marshlands.
Japanese encephalitis vaccination is given as two or three separate injections.
More on the Japanese encephalitis jab
Tick-borne encephalitis vaccination
This is a viral infection spread by bites from infected ticks. Countries at risk of tick-borne encephalitis include areas of central and Western Europe and Asia.
Vaccination may be recommended if you're intending to camp or work in heavily forested regions of countries affected by the disease.
Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis is a course of three separate injections.
More on the tick-borne encephalitis jab
Measles, mumps and rubella are viral infections that are usually spread via droplet infection from coughs and sneezes. Infections occur worldwide.
You'll need this jab for travel if you've not been previously fully vaccinated or you're not already immune.
More on the MMR jab
Meningococcal meningitis vaccination
Meningococcal disease occurs sporadically all over the world.
You should be vaccinated against meningococcal meningitis with an ACWY vaccine (also known as the quadrivalent meningococcal meningitis vaccine) if you're travelling to areas at risk and your planned activities put you at higher risk, for example if you're a healthcare worker, visiting friends and relatives, or a long-term traveller who has close contact with the local population. All travellers to Saudi Arabia for the Hajj or Umrah pilgrimages are required to show proof of vaccination.
The meningococcal meningitis vaccination is given as a single injection.
More on the meningococcal meningitis jab